This is part 1 of a 2-part series of articles that report on the results of a prospective observational cohort study designed to examine the risk factors associated with symptomatic upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) in patients with peripherally inserted central catheters. This article provides an extensive review and critique of the literature that serves to explicate what is currently known about risk factors associated with catheter-related UEDVT. Risk factors such as anticoagulant use, cancer, infection, hypertension, catheter tip placement, and catheter size were identified most frequently in the literature as being associated with UEDVT development. Other risk factors—such as obesity, smoking history, surgery, and presence of pain or edema—were examined in a limited number of studies and lacked consistent evidence of their impact on UEDVT development. The subsequent study that evolved from the review of the literature investigates the relationship between identified risk factors and UEDVT development.
PinnacleHealth System, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (Ms Clemence and Dr Maneval); and Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Dr Maneval).
Bonnie J. Clemence, MSN, RN, CRNI®, was a staff nurse in the IV therapy department at PinnacleHealth System in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. She has extensive experience as an infusion therapy and pediatric nurse.
Rhonda E. Maneval, DEd, MSN, RN, is a professor of nursing and associate chair for undergraduate nursing education at Temple University in Philadelphia. She is also a nursing research consultant for PinnacleHealth System.
Corresponding Author: Bonnie J. Clemence, MSN, RN, CRNI®, 114 Sunset Drive, New Cumberland, PA 17070 (email@example.com).
Bonnie J. Clemence received a grant from PinnacleHealth Foundation.
Rhonda E. Maneval is the nurse research consultant for PinnacleHealth and was paid for her contribution.
The authors of this article have no other conflicts of interest to disclose.