Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) have an established role in oncology. This article reviews the advances in the pharmacology, pharmacotherapy, and expanded indications of CSFs outside oncology and the role of the infusion nurse. New pharmacologic formulations of CSFs allow for less frequent dosing, less nursing administration time, and increased adherence. Expanded uses in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Crohn's disease, mucositis, wound healing, chronic kidney disease, Jehovah's Witnesses, illegal use in sports, and non–drug-induced thrombocytopenia are reviewed. The role of the infusion nurse in the minimization of CSF prescribing errors, administration, monitoring, and patient education are summarized.