Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Entering Into Suffering

Becoming a Transformed and Transforming Healer

doi: 10.1097/CNJ.0000000000000359
CE Connection
Back to Top | Article Outline

Entering Into Suffering: Becoming a Transformed and Transforming Healer


  • Read the article. The test for this CE activity can be taken online at Find the test under the article title. Tests can no longer be mailed or faxed. You will need to create a username and password and login to your free personal CE Planner account before taking online tests. Your planner will keep track of all your Lippincott Williams & Wilkins online CE activities for you.
  • There is only one correct answer for each question. A passing score for this test is 17 correct answers. If you pass, you can print your certificate of earned contact hours and access the answer key. If you fail, you have the option of taking the test again at no additional cost.
  • This CE test also is available for viewing at in the table of contents for this issue under .
  • Visit for other CE activities and your personalized CE planner tool.
  • For questions contact Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: 1-800-787-8985.
Back to Top | Article Outline

Registration Deadline: March 31, 2019


The authors and planners have disclosed that they have no financial relationships related to this article.

Back to Top | Article Outline


Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, publisher of Journal of Christian Nursing, will award 1.5 contact hours for this continuing nursing education activity.

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation.

This activity also is provider approved by the California Board of Registered Nursing, Provider Number CEP 11749 for 1.5 contact hours. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins also is an approved provider of continuing nursing education by the District of Columbia, Georgia, and Florida, CE Broker #50-1223. Your certificate is valid in all states.

Back to Top | Article Outline


  • The registration fee for this test is $17.95 for nonmembers; $12.95 for NCF members.

For additional continuing education articles related to faith-based nursing care, go to

JCN continuing education offers a distinct blend of clinical and professional content with an underlying spiritual emphasis.


General Purpose

To present a research-based model of compassionate intervention that can be used by nurses to relieve the suffering of others.

Learning Objectives/Outcomes After completing this educational activity, you should be able to:

  1. Describe the phenomenon of suffering among patients and caregivers.
  2. Discuss the suffering interview project conducted with nursing students.
  3. Describe the Pedagogy of Suffering Model and its relationship to Jesus' encounter with a suffering woman.
  1. Physical encounters with suffering may occur through
    1. loss of a job.
    2. chronic illness and injury.
    3. interpersonal conflict.
  2. Cassell (1991) described suffering as
    1. the result of life's errors.
    2. episodic and transient.
    3. a threat to personal integrity.
  3. Individuals who feel the greatest effect from suffering are those who experience
    1. a health event with pre-existing suffering.
    2. the death of a loved one.
    3. a traumatic event at a young age.
  4. Pask (2001) and Rudolfsson & Berggren (2012) wrote that feelings of powerlessness and isolation experienced by caregivers unable to relieve another person's suffering can lead to
    1. guilt feelings.
    2. avoidance behaviors.
    3. acts of compassion.
  5. Rowe (2012) suggested that encounters with suffering and distress lead caregivers to question their integrity as healing persons, which contributes to
    1. moral distress.
    2. depression and anxiety.
    3. caregiver attrition.
  6. Barriers to compassionate caregiving identified in the article include
    1. cultural differences between the patient and caregiver.
    2. a lack of confidence and coping skills by the caregiver.
    3. a caregiver's multiple experiences of life-impacting events.
  7. The goal of the interview project was to
    1. help students process the meaning of suffering for themselves and patients.
    2. identify caregivers who were not demonstrating compassionate care.
    3. relieve experienced nurses of burnout and moral distress.
  8. To implement the project, students were asked to interview a
    1. patient.
    2. member of the clergy.
    3. person other than a patient.
  9. Students were asked to explore how suffering relates to the
    1. nursing process.
    2. known theories of suffering.
    3. mind, body and spirit.
  10. What method was used to determine the impact the assignment had on the students' understanding of and response to suffering?
    1. quantitative analysis of questions answered by the students
    2. anecdotal recording of the students' overall experiences
    3. review of the students' grades on a written test
  11. Students rated “highly” the assignment's ability to
    1. identify specific instances of suffering in others.
    2. help them understand their role in working with suffering.
    3. focus on the patient's suffering and remain objective.
  12. What method was used to expand on the students' interview experiences?
    1. open-ended survey questions
    2. recorded debriefing sessions
    3. a rank ordering questionnaire
  13. One theme that emerged was that, regarding suffering, students gained an understanding of the role of
    1. professionalism.
    2. ethics.
    3. spirituality.
  14. The first component of the Pedagogy of Suffering Model is
    1. responding to others.
    2. knowing the self.
    3. reflecting on the impact of suffering.
  15. The Pedagogy of Suffering Model demonstrates that, through witnessing suffering, one is able to reflect on the impact the suffering of others has on oneself and to move to
    1. understanding of self.
    2. compassionate care of self and others.
    3. understanding human connectedness.
  16. Listening for Meanings is an element of which component of the Pedagogy of Suffering Model?
    1. responding to the suffering other
    2. knowing the self
    3. seeing the suffering other
  17. The four Gospels provide examples of Jesus as he exemplified the role of Healer by
    1. teaching others how to provide care to the suffering.
    2. encouraging suffering individuals to trust God.
    3. entering into the suffering of others.
  18. What action by the Syrophoenician woman indicates that she knew she was asking help from Jesus who possibly might not have compassion on her?
    1. She brought her daughter to him to ask for healing.
    2. She bowed down at his feet and begged for help.
    3. She asked him to come to her home and heal her daughter.
  19. The transforming element of the story is what Bae (2004) described as the
    1. creative relationship between Jesus and the woman.
    2. opportunity for both to acknowledge and move beyond enmity.
    3. vulnerability and desperation of the Syrophoenician woman.
  20. Which step of the suffering model emerges when there is an understanding of one's own suffering and the suffering of others?
    1. understanding human connectedness
    2. knowing the self
    3. seeing the suffering others
  21. When Jesus chooses to become engaged with the family's suffering, he is demonstrating the suffering model step of
    1. seeing the suffering other.
    2. understanding human connectedness.
    3. responding to the suffering other.
  22. The model indicates that becoming an effective caregiver for those who suffer is grounded in
    1. sympathy.
    2. self-reflection.
    3. service.
  23. Through the interview project, the authors found that when students worked on different aspects of the model, they
    1. were able to provide more objective care to the suffering.
    2. felt more confident interacting with suffering patients and their families.
    3. came to a deeper understanding of themselves and of those who were suffering.
© 2017 by InterVarsity Christian Fellowship