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Advance Directives Education: A Critical Need

doi: 10.1097/CNJ.0000000000000124
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Advance Directives Education: A Critical Need


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General Purpose:

General Purpose: To provide information on advance health care directives (AHCDs) and the development of an educational program on AHCDs for nurses.

Learning Objectives:

After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to:

  1. Examine the history of AHCDs.
  2. Explore the development of an AHCD educational inservice for nurses.
  1. In 2009 the Society for Risk Analysis found that a total of how many American adults had living wills?
    1. 8%
    2. 18%
    3. 28%
    4. 38%
  2. In this same study, a total of how many American adults had healthcare proxies?
    1. 10%
    2. 30%
    3. 50%
    4. 70%
  3. For adults who have completed AHCDs, how many have sufficient advance directives reflected in their medical records?
    1. 15%
    2. 18%
    3. 22%
    4. 25%
  4. The Living Will was developed to
    1. appoint a person to make medical decisions for someone else.
    2. designate someone as an organ donor.
    3. distribute a person's possessions while that person is still alive.
    4. prevent or stop extraordinary measures that would prolong life.
  5. Which statement is true regarding AHCDs?
    1. Health Care Power of Attorney always has to be notarized.
    2. If an adult lacks decision-making capacity and does not have a proxy, healthcare providers must seek legal permission to stop life-sustaining treatment.
    3. The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) requires competent adults admitted to a healthcare facility to receive in writing their right to accept or refuse medical treatment.
    4. Living Wills always have to be notarized.
  6. The 2010 study by Matsui revealed that people want to learn about advance directives
    1. from their lawyer.
    2. from their clergy.
    3. over the Internet.
    4. from their healthcare providers.
  7. Which statement is true regarding the results of research studies related to advance directives?
    1. Dobbins (2007) reports that nurses are prohibited by federal law from giving medical treatments that are contrary to patients' wishes.
    2. Duke et (2009) discovered that a written AHCD has not ensured that a patient's desires were honored by family or the courts.
    3. Guo et (2010) report that when patients are given information about AHCDs, they often understand the purpose of an AHCD.
    4. Meeussen et (2010) discovered that most nurses have received a basic educational program on AHCDs.
  8. Winter et (2010) concluded that patients' advance care documents often are ineffective for all of the following reasons except
    1. patients do not have them witnessed or notarized.
    2. patients' wishes change as their conditions change.
    3. physicians are reluctant to provide patients with prognoses.
    4. living will scenarios often are not reflective of true life circumstances.
  9. In the study described in this article, the nurses' score for PSDA knowledge was
    1. 53%.
    2. 66%.
    3. 71%.
    4. 83%.
  10. The total AHCD knowledge score for the nurses in this study was
    1. 34%.
    2. 57%.
    3. 72%.
    4. 89%.
  11. There was a positive correlation between higher total AHCD scores and
    1. a nurse's education.
    2. specialty certification.
    3. a nurse's age.
    4. nurses having their own AHCD.
  12. All of the following are assumptions about adult learners in the Andragogical Model except
    1. the learners need to be responsible for their learning.
    2. adult learners have a problem-centered orientation to learning.
    3. the learners must be ready to learn.
    4. external motivators to learn are more influential than internal motivators.
  13. The AHCD inservice education program described in this article was conducted over
    1. 1 hour.
    2. 2 hours.
    3. 4 hours.
    4. 8 hours.
  14. Learning from the AHCD inservice was applied via
    1. an oral examination.
    2. assisting patients to complete advance directives.
    3. role playing.
    4. nurses completing their own advance directives.
  15. The healthcare proxy is also known as the
    1. durable power of attorney.
    2. patient self-determination act.
    3. declaration of caregiver.
    4. medical directive.
  16. Which statement is true regarding the healthcare power of attorney?
    1. The person appointed to be the authorized agent must be ≥ 16 years of age.
    2. Healthcare decisions are limited to end-of-life.
    3. It is narrower and less flexible than the living will.
    4. The agent can be given as much or as little authority as desired.
  17. The function of the U.Living Will Registry is to
    1. make AHCDs available to healthcare providers 24/7.
    2. register only medical powers of attorney.
    3. ensure that patients are informed of their right to use an AHCD.
    4. provide a hard copy of living wills for all hospitalized patients.
  18. The Comprehensive Advance Health Care Directive combines into one document the
    1. healthcare proxy and the do not resuscitate order.
    2. “allow natural death” order and the medical directive.
    3. living will and the healthcare power of attorney.
    4. directive to physicians and the do not intubate order.


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