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Issues in Organ Procurement, Allocation, and Transplantation

doi: 10.1097/CNJ.0b013e31828b2ff5
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Issues in Organ Procurement, Allocation, and Transplantation


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General Purpose: To provide information on issues related to the procurement, allocation, and transplantation of organs and tissues.

Learning Objectives: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to:

  1. Describe the history of transplantation and potential outcomes of organ or tissue transplantation.
  2. Outline the process of organ procurement and allocation.
  3. Define the laws governing and the ethical dilemmas related to transplantation and strategies for coping with associated moral distress.
  1. When did the first skin transplant occur?
    1. 450 BC
    2. 890 AD
    3. 1653
    4. 1924
  2. The first modern organ transplant involved
    1. a kidney.
    2. part of a liver.
    3. thyroid tissue.
    4. a heart.
  3. Karl Landsteiner contributed to the process of transplantation with his discovery of
    1. artificial means to maintain organs.
    2. vascular suturing techniques.
    3. the blood group system.
    4. immunosuppressive drugs.
  4. How many lives can benefit from tissues donated from one donor?
    1. 5 lives
    2. 15 lives
    3. 25 lives
    4. 50 lives
  5. Recipient complications of transplantation include
    1. diabetes.
    2. cancer.
    3. multiple sclerosis.
    4. Parkinson's disease.
  6. The lowest 5-year survival rates after transplantation involve
    1. intestine transplants.
    2. liver transplants.
    3. pancreas transplants.
    4. heart/lung transplants.
  7. The highest 5-year survival rates in females after transplantation involve
    1. kidney transplants.
    2. heart transplants.
    3. pancreas transplants.
    4. liver transplants.
  8. Which organ can be procured from a live donor?
    1. heart
    2. pancreas
    3. intestine
    4. partial lung
  9. As noted in the article, contraindications to organ donation include
    1. hepatitis A seropositive.
    2. a prion disease.
    3. brain death.
    4. hepatitis C seropositive.
  10. To determine brain death, tests are performed to determine if there is an absence of all of the following when removed from artificial ventilation except
    1. brainstem reflexes.
    2. motor responses.
    3. cardiac activity.
    4. respiration.
  11. For Donation after Cardiac Death, solid organs are procured usually within how many minutes after the heart stops beating?
    1. 5 minutes
    2. 15 minutes
    3. 25 minutes
    4. 35 minutes
  12. Which statement is true regarding religious guidelines on transplantation?
    1. Organs for transplantation should go to the most morally deserving persons.
    2. Donation and transplantation should not impede life or hasten the donor's death.
    3. The religion of the donor and the recipient should be the same.
    4. Less than half of all religious groups support organ or tissue donation and transplantation.
  13. What regulates state laws on the donation of organs and tissues from cadavers?
    1. the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA)
    2. the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS)
    3. the National Organ Transplant Act (NOTA)
    4. the Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN)
  14. To be added to the UNOS transplant waiting list, the person
    1. can be in the early stages of organ failure.
    2. must be seen by a transplant surgeon in any transplant hospital in the world.
    3. cannot have suffered cardiac arrest and been resuscitated.
    4. can be a non-U.citizen who is not a U.resident.
  15. The rules for allocation of organs generally include the patient's
    1. age.
    2. educational level.
    3. time on the waiting list.
    4. desire for transplantation.
  16. General recipient contraindications to transplant include
    1. substance abuse within the last 2 years.
    2. inadequate financial resources.
    3. body mass index > 25 kg/m2.
    4. incarceration with a history of addiction.
  17. As noted in the article, nurses who experience moral distress have reported symptoms such as
    1. neck pain.
    2. cardiac arrhythmias.
    3. extremity stiffness.
    4. visual disturbances.
  18. The author recommends coping with moral conflict by doing any of the following except
    1. finding quiet times with God outside of work.
    2. praying and fasting.
    3. getting proper rest and exercise.
    4. developing personal relationships.


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