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Universal Principles for Culturally Sensitive Diabetic Education

doi: 10.1097/CNJ.0b013e3181f6ff67
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Universal Principles for Culturally Sensitive Diabetic Education


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General Purpose: To provide registered professional nurses with an understanding of the issues in cross-cultural diabetic and health education.

Learning Objectives: After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to:

  1. Identify issues related to culturally sensitive teaching of diabetic patients in Mauritania.
  2. Outline topics in health education pertinent to diabetic patients.

1. A culturally sensitive approach to health education involves

a. demonstrating the value of Christian beliefs over beliefs in other faiths.

b. advocating for abandonment of cultural values when they negatively impact health.

c. demonstrating the ineffectiveness of cultural traditions that contradict Western medicine.

d. considering cultural issues and advocating for proven therapy for diseases.

2. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends diabetics perform moderate-intensity activity at least

a. 10 minutes/day, 5 days/week.

b. 20 minutes/day, 4 days/week.

c. 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week.

d. 45 minutes/day, 3 days/week.

3. The author overcame the stereotype of Mauritanians not wanting to exercise by

a. suggesting that they walk around their neighborhoods.

b. asking them to plan their own exercise.

c. telling them to take the stairs at work.

d. recommending that they join a gym with friends.

4. The goal of glycemic control is to maintain the HBA1c below

a. 7%.

b. 7.5%.

c. 8%.

d. 8.5%.

5. The HBA1c goal equals an average pre- and post-prandial plasma glucose of

a. 100 mg/dL.

b. 110 mg/dL.

c. 133 mg/dL.

d. 154 mg/dL.

6. What percent of Mauritanians eat no fruits or vegetables each day?

a. 9%

b. 22%

c. 39%

d. 57%

7. Which statement is true about the glycemic index (GI)?

a. Grapes and watermelon have a GI ≤ 68.

b. It is a measure of the effect of carbohydrates on blood glucose levels.

c. Complex carbohydrates that break down more slowly have a higher GI.

d. Most cheeses and nuts have higher GIs.

8. Instead of 2 large, carbohydrate-rich meals with 1 meal at bedtime, patients were advised to substitute

a. 1 large meal at noon and 1 at 6 pm.

b. 2 large carbohydrate-poor meals with the last meal at 7 pm.

c. 3 small meals spaced evenly throughout the day.

d. 4 or 5 small meals.

9. For better glycemic control, the author recommended substituting

a. couscous for bulgar wheat.

b. breads with lower GIs.

c. conventional rice for parboiled rice.

d. couscous for barley porridge.

10. What is the GI of dried dates?

a. 91

b. 165

c. 121

d. 103

11. When talking to diabetics about problem foods,

a. prohibit the one food with the highest GI in their diets.

b. restrict the intake of problem foods to 2 special occasions/year.

c. suggest a culturally acceptable alternative with a lower GI.

d. advise them that they must refrain from eating problem foods to avoid complications.

12. For obese diabetic patients, the author did all of the followingexcept

a. encouraged the patient to set small, more easily obtainable weight loss goals.

b. discussed diet and exercise before weight loss.

c. set a goal of 10 kg (22 lbs) in 2 months for each patient.

d. explained the benefits of weight loss.

13. Many West African patients believe that if they finish a course of medication they

a. will be cured.

b. will not need to modify their lifestyle.

c. can reduce their daily dosage.

d. will not be contagious.

14. Medication adherence problems in Mauritanian diabetics is most often linked to the

a. expense of the medications.

b. availability of the medications.

c. belief in the medications' efficacy.

d. side effects of the medications.

15. How were patients' glucose fluctuations assessed when glucose testing was not feasible?

a. diet adherence

b. signs and symptoms

c. how much exercise the patients were doing

d. medication adherence

16. Which of the following is a specific risk for diabetics observing Ramadan?

a. hyperkalemia

b. pancreatitis

c. diabetic ketoacidosis

d. hypervolemia

17. According to the ADA, during Ramadan Type 1 diabetics should

a. fast, but monitor their blood glucose during the fast period.

b. be strongly advised not to fast.

c. refrain from strenuous activity.

d. refrain from water but not food during the fast period.

18. A universal principle in cross-cultural health education is

a. withhold unpleasant health information to encourage compliance with the care plan.

b. patients have a right to make their own decisions about their healthcare.

c. stereotypes can provide useful starting points for understanding cultures.

d. focus on the "shoulds" and "musts" of diabetic care, not the "hows" and "whys."



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