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Authors should provide 3–5 keywords for each article.
Limit the abstract to 250 words. Do not cite references in the abstract. Limit the use of abbreviations and acronyms. Original articles should have a structured abstract organized under the following subheads: Objectives, Methods, Results, and Conclusions.Back to top of page
Number the pages of the Word file of the manuscript, with the title page as page 1. Organize the manuscript into six main headings: Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, and Acknowledgments. Define abbreviations at first mention in text and in each table and figure. If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer’s name and address (city and state/country). Acknowledge all forms of support, including pharmaceutical and industry support, in an Acknowledgment paragraph.Back to top of page
For a list of standard abbreviations, consult the Council of Biology Editors Style Guide (available from the Council of Science Editors, Drohan Management Group, 12100 Sunset Hills Road, Suite 130, Reston, VA 20190) or other standard sources. Write out the full term for each abbreviation at its first use unless it is a standard unit of measure.Back to top of page
Pattern reference style after the American Medical Association Manual of Style (most recent edition). This reference style is available in all major reference software programs. The authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the references. Cite references in text in the order of appearance as superscript numerals at the end of a word1 or after punctuation.2 (The preceding numerals are examples.) Do not link the references to the text. Cite unpublished data, such as papers submitted but not yet accepted for publication or personal communications, in parentheses in the text. If there are more than six (6) authors and/or editors, name only the first three (3) and then use "et al". Journal references should include the issue number in parentheses after the volume number. Refer to the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus for abbreviations of journal names, or access the list at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html. Sample references are given below:
1. Youngster I, Russell GH, Pindar C, Ziv-Baran T, Sauk J, Hohmann EL. Oral, capsulized, frozen fecal microbiota transplantation for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection. JAMA. 2014;312(17):1772-1778.
2. Murray CJL. Maximizing antiretroviral therapy in developing countries: the dual challenge of efficiency and quality [published online December 1, 2014]. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.16376
3. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. CMS proposals to implement certain disclosure provisions of the Affordable Care Act. http://www.cms.gov/apps/media/press/factsheet.asp?Counter=4221. Accessed January 30, 2012.
4. McPhee SJ, Winker MA, Rabow MW, Pantilat SZ, Markowitz AJ, eds. Care at the Close of Life: Evidence and Experience. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical; 2011.
References any format you like: ON INITIAL SUBMISSION only, references can be in any consistent format. They must all include: author names, article, book or chapter title, publication year, volume and issue or edition, and page numbers (start and end). Prior to acceptance for publication (e.g., when editors request a revision), the author will be required to revise the references in the manuscript such that they are in the correct numerical AMA style (see above). This process allows for ease of submission, with the need for authors to meet journal style requirements only when it becomes more likely that the paper will be published.
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FIGURES AND ARTWORK
A) Creating Digital Artwork
- Learn about the publication requirements for Digital Artwork: http://links.lww.com/ES/A42
- Create, Scan and Save your artwork and compare your final figure to the Digital Artwork Guideline Checklist (below).
- Upload each figure to Editorial Manager in conjunction with your manuscript text and tables.
B) Digital Artwork Guideline Checklist
Here are the basics to have in place before submitting your digital artwork:
- Artwork should be saved as TIFF, EPS, or MS Office (DOC, PPT, XLS) files. High resolution PDF files are also acceptable.
- Crop out any white or black space surrounding the image.
- Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and other line art must be vector or saved at a resolution of at least 1200 dpi. If created in an MS Office program, send the native (DOC, PPT, XLS) file.
- Photographs, radiographs and other halftone images must be saved at a resolution of at least 300 dpi.
- Photographs and radiographs with text must be saved as postscript or at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.
- Each figure must be saved and submitted as a separate file. Figures should not be embedded in the manuscript text file.
- Cite figures consecutively in your manuscript.
- Number figures in the figure legend in the order in which they are discussed.
- Upload figures consecutively to the Editorial Manager web site and enter figure numbers consecutively in the Description field when uploading the files.
The journal accepts for publication color figures that will enhance an article. Authors who submit color figures will receive an estimate of the cost for color reproduction. If they decide not to pay for color reproduction, they can request that the figures be converted to black and white at no charge. The authors may also request that their color figures be posted online only. The color processing fee is waived when authors elect to pay for Gold Route or Hybrid open access.
Include legends for all figures. They should be brief and specific, and they should appear on a separate manuscript page after the references. Use scale markers in the image for electron micrographs, and indicate the type of stain used.Back to top of page
SUPPLEMENTAL DIGITAL CONTENT
Supplemental Digital Content (SDC): Authors may submit SDC via Editorial Manager to LWW journals that enhance their article's text to be considered for online posting. SDC may include standard media such as text documents, graphs, audio, video, etc. On the Attach Files page of the submission process, please select Supplemental Audio, Video, or Data for your uploaded file as the Submission Item. If an article with SDC is accepted, our production staff will create a URL with the SDC file. The URL will be placed in the call-out within the article. SDC files are not copy-edited by LWW staff, they will be presented digitally as submitted. For a list of all available file types and detailed instructions, please visit http://links.lww.com/A142.
Supplemental Digital Content must be cited consecutively in the text of the submitted manuscript. Citations should include the type of material submitted (Audio, Figure, Table, etc.), be clearly labeled as "Supplemental Digital Content," include the sequential list number, and provide a description of the supplemental content. All descriptive text should be included in the call-out as it will not appear elsewhere in the article.
We performed many tests on the degrees of flexibility in the elbow (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, which demonstrates elbow flexibility) and found our results inconclusive.
List of Supplemental Digital Content
A listing of Supplemental Digital Content must be submitted at the end of the manuscript file. Include the SDC number and file type of the Supplemental Digital Content. This text will be removed by our production staff and not be published.
Supplemental Digital Content 1.wmv
SDC File RequirementsBack to top of page
All acceptable file types are permissible up to 10 MBs. For audio or video files greater than 10 MBs, authors should first query theJjournal office for approval. For a list of all available file types and detailed instructions, please visithttp://links.lww.com/A142.
Create tables using the table creating and editing feature of your word processing software (e.g., Word, WordPerfect). Do not use Excel or comparable spreadsheet programs. Group all tables in a separate file. Cite tables consecutively in the text, and number them in that order. Each table should appear on a separate page and should include the table title, appropriate column heads, and explanatory legends (including definitions of any abbreviations used). Do not embed tables within the body of the manuscript. They should be self-explanatory and should supplement, rather than duplicate, the material in the text.Back to top of page
Journal of Addiction Medicine has specific style regarding drug names, drug manufacturers, and units. Refer to drugs and therapeutic agents by their accepted generic or chemical names, and do not abbreviate them. Use code numbers only when a generic name is not yet available. In that case, supply the chemical name and a figure giving the chemical structure of the drug. Capitalize the trade names of drugs and place them in parentheses after the generic names. To comply with trademark law, include the name and (city and state/country) of the manufacturer of any drug, supply, or equipment mentioned in the manuscript.
Use the metric system to express units of measure and degrees Celsius to express temperatures, and use SI units rather than conventional units.
In presenting p-values, please display 2 decimal places for 0.99>=p>=0.01; 3 decimal places for .01>p>=0.001; and for smaller values express as "p<.001".Back to top of page
Page proofs and corrections
Corresponding authors will receive electronic page proofs to check the copyedited and typeset article before publication. Portable document format (PDF) files of the typeset pages will be sent to the corresponding author by Editorial Manager task assignment. Complete instructions will be provided with the task assignment for accessing the article proof. It is the author’s responsibility to ensure that there are no errors in the proofs. Changes that have been made to conform to journal style will stand if they do not alter the authors’ meaning. Only the most critical changes to the accuracy of the content will be made. Changes that are stylistic or are a reworking of previously accepted material will be disallowed. The publisher reserves the right to deny any changes that do not affect the accuracy of the content. Authors may be charged for alterations to the proofs beyond those required to correct errors or to answer queries. Proofs must be checked carefully and corrections submitted in Editorial Manager within 24 to 48 hours of receipt, as requested in task assignment letter.Back to top of page
Authors will receive an email notification with a link to the order form soon after thier article publishes in the journal - https://shop.lww.com/author-reprint. Reprints are normally shipped 6 to 8 weeks after publication of the issue in which the item appears. Contact the Reprint Department, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 351 West Camden Street, Baltimore, MD 21201; by fax at 410-528-4434; or by e-mail at: [email protected] with any questions. Back to top of page
LANGUAGE AND TERMINOLOGY GUIDANCE FOR JOURNAL OF ADDICTION MEDICINE (JAM) MANUSCRIPTS
The Editors strongly encourage use of precise terminology by authors when submitting manuscripts to Journal of Addiction Medicine. The following guidelines reflect current diagnostic trends, are precise, and are respectful of persons with the spectrum of substance use disorders.
- Please use “person first” language (e.g. “person/patient/participant with alcohol use disorder”, rather than “alcoholic”). “Addict” and “alcoholic,” while popular among some patients and the lay public, can be stigmatizing, dehumanizing, and they do not reflect the very human condition of addiction. Patients are not “addicts” or “alcoholics” but instead are people or persons with medical illnesses defined by consensus-driven medical terms such as “alcohol use disorder,” “opioid use disorder,” “gambling disorder.”
- Do not use the word “abuse” in reference to substance use unless referring to a diagnosis in pre-DSM 5 versions of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Similarly do not use the word “abuser.” “Use” is often the appropriate replacement for “abuse.” Instead of “drug of abuse” use “addictive drug” or “psychoactive drug” or “potentially addictive drug.” We are aware of literature that studies “abuse potential” and recognize there may not be a suitable replacement for that term.
- Preferred terms for the disease include substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder, gambling disorder (DSM-defined terms), and addiction (when used as defined by American Society of Addiction Medicine). Use of terms in other diagnostic systems is acceptable provided the terms are used as defined. Examples might include “dependence” when referring to pre-DSM 5 or International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnoses, or the ICD diagnosis harmful use. Note that drug should generally not be used when the more appropriate term is medication.
- Terminology that attempts to quantify or risk stratify substance use or gambling should be defined within the manuscript. However, we recommend to the author to:
Use medical, not non-medical language:
- Avoid using the imprecise terms “misuse,” “problem use,” “inappropriate use,” or “binge or binge drinking.” For example “binge” has been used to a mean heavy drinking episode as defined by number of drinks per unit time, but also as several days of continuous heavy use. “Misuse” can be used to describe use of a prescription medication beyond that prescribed though use without a prescription may be better described as “non-medical.”
- “Moderate” drinking is non-specific and implies associations with values or outcomes. “Low” risk or “lower” risk is preferred, or simply specify the amount (e.g. fewer than 2 drinks per day).
- Preferred terms for use that risks health consequences include “at-risk” or “risky” or “hazardous use.” “Harmful use” is an ICD diagnosis and its use should be restricted to that diagnosis. “Problem use” can refer to use associated with consequences that do not meet criteria for a substance use disorder/addiction. “Unhealthy use” refers to the full spectrum from risky use to a disorder. http://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2014/08/01/terminology-related-to-the-spectrum-of-unhealthy-substance-use
- Do not use the term “medication-assisted” unless it is the name of an agency, program, or quoted from another document, in which case the term should appear in quotation marks. Instead use “treatment” or “opioid agonist treatment” or “medication for opioid use disorder” or similar terms. Authors may use the term in quotations when defining the term they will use (e.g. medication for addiction treatment (MAT)(sometimes known as “medication-assisted treatment”) once in the manuscript. Further information regarding the rationale for this recommendation can be found here:
- “Medical record” is preferred over “chart.”
- Avoid “drunk,” “smashed,” “bombed.” Instead use “intoxicated” consistent with the DSM.
- Avoid inaccurate or imprecise terms:
Avoid stigmatizing language:
- “Opiates” refer to naturally occurring or derived substances (e.g. morphine, heroin). “Opioids” is a broader term that includes synthetics and semi-synthetics.
- “Adherence” is preferred over “compliance” when referring to use of health services or medications.
- For specificity, “history of” and “active” should be avoided in favor of more specific descriptions (e.g. “past 30-day use,” “current [past year] diagnosis”).
- Avoid “substitution” therapy”. “Substitution” is not a correct characterization of medication treatment (for example, opioid agonist treatment does not generally produce euphoria or short-lived increases in blood opioid levels). Thus, for opioids, “agonist treatment” or “opioid agonist treatment” are preferred.
- The Journal recommends against using the term “microdosing” to describe low dose buprenorphine. “Microdosing” has a range of meanings in the literature but was originally used to mean a sub-therapeutic dose used to determine pharmacokinetics by the Food and Drug Administration in the US, which is not consistent with the meaning when used to refer to low buprenorphine doses given to start the medication in those with physical dependence to high dose opioid agonists. Authors may use the term once, in quotes, when defining low-dose buprenorphine, and not in the title of the paper (e.g. low-dose buprenorphine (sometimes referred to inaccurately as “microdosing”)).
- Do not use “dirty” or “clean” urine or test results, use instead “positive” or “negative” urine or “urine positive for cocaine”, or “cocaine detected,” etc.
- Do not use “drunk, pothead, crackhead, meth addict, etc.” Instead use “patient with [insert substance] use disorder.”
- Do not use “frequent flyer” or “recidivist”. Instead use “patient with multiple relapses.”
- Avoid stating that the patient failed treatment. Instead note that the treatment failed or was not efficacious or effective.
Physicians generally encourage patients and research participants to use commonly accepted medical terminology. For example, patients are taught about “diabetes” instead of “sugar” by health care workers. It has been acceptable for patients or research participants to use “vernacular/slang” language when discussing substance use with clinicians. This may result in confusion or even suboptimal care since healthcare workers may be unfamiliar with common use of lay terms. In the practice of Addiction Medicine, or in the reporting of peer-reviewed papers in JAM, the use of humanizing, non-stigmatizing, medically-defined, precise, and professional consensus-driven terminology is important. This will help assure that patients receive respectful high quality treatment and that communication is as clear as possible.
American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association, 2013
Broyles LM, Binswanger IA, Jenkins JA, Finnell DS, Faseru B, Cavaiola A, Pugatch M, Gordon AJ. Confronting inadvertent stigma and pejorative language in addiction scholarship: a recognition and response. Subst Abus. 2014;35(3):217-21. doi: 10.1080/08897077.2014.930372.
Friedmann PD, Schwartz RP. Just call it “treatment.” Addiction Science & Clinical Practice 2012, 7:10
Samet JH, Fiellin DA. Opioid substitution therapy—time to replace the term
The Lancet , Volume 385 , Issue 9977 , 1508 - 1509
Kelly JF, Wakeman SE, Saitz R. Stop talking 'dirty': clinicians, language, and quality of care for the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Am J Med. 2015 Jan;128(1):8-9. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2014.07.043. Epub 2014 Sep 3.
Kelly JF, Westerhoff C. Does it matter how we refer to individuals with substance-related problems? A randomized study with two commonly used terms
Int J Drug Policy, 21 (2010), pp. 202–207
Kelly JF, Dow SJ, Westerhoff C. Does our choice of substance-related terms influence perceptions of treatment need? An empirical investigation with two commonly used terms J Drug Issues, 40 (2010), pp. 805–818
Salsitz EA, Miller SC. Perspectives: the language of addiction. American Society of Addiction Medicine News 2002 November/December;17(6):13.
Terminology Related to Addiction, Treatment and Recovery. http://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2014/08/01/terminology-related-to-addiction-treatment-and-recovery
Terminology Related to the Spectrum of Unhealthy Substance Use. http://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2014/08/01/terminology-related-to-the-spectrum-of-unhealthy-substance-use
The Definition of Addiction. http://www.asam.org/advocacy/find-a-policy-statement/view-policy-statement/public-policy-statements/2011/12/15/the-definition-of-addiction
Van Boekel LC, Brouwers EP, van Weeghal J, Garretsen HF. Stigma among health professionals towards patients with substance use disorders and its consequences for healthcare delivery: a systematic review Drug Alcohol Depend, 131 (2013), pp. 23–35
Wakeman SE. Language and Addiction: Choosing Words Wisely. American Journal of Public Health: April 2013, Vol. 103, No. 4, pp. e1-e2.
doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301191Back to top of page