Journal of the American College of Surgeons

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​​​​​​​ ​​​​​​​​​​​Editor-in-Chief

 Timothy Eberlein, MD, FACS
 Saint Louis, Missouri

Managing Editor

Matthew R. Carmichael
Chicago, Illinois

 Associate Managing Editor

 Claire Sydow
 Chicago, Illinois

 CME Editor

 Ronald J. Weigel
 Iowa City, Iowa

 RAS Liaisons

 Brett Tracy, MD
 Columbus, Ohio

 Johnathan Vacek, MD, MS
 Louisville, Kentucky 

 Publisher

 Ali Manieri
 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

​​​​​​Deputy Editors

Barbara L. Bass
Houston, Texas

Timothy R. Billiar
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

L.D. Britt
Norfolk, Virginia

Eileen M. Bulger
Seattle, Washington

James S. Economou
Los Angeles, California

Mary T. Hawn
Stanford, California


Editorial Board

Nita Ahuja
New Haven, Connecticut

Hasan B. Alam
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Derek Alderson
Birmingham, United Kingdom

R Daniel Beauchamp
Nashville, Tennessee

Kevin E. Behrns
Gainesville​, Florida

 John D. Birkmeyer
 Lebanon, New Hampshire

 Karen J. Brasel
 Portland, Oregon

 Carlos V.R. Brown
 Austin, Texas

 Charles E. Butler
 Houston, Texas

 Rachel A. Callcut
 Sacramento, California

 William C. Chapman
 Saint Louis, Missouri

 Raul Coimbra
 Moreno Valley, California

 Craig M. Coopersmith
 Atlanta, Georgia

 Thomas A. D'Amico
 Durham, North Carolina

 Justin B. Dimick
 Ann Arbor, Michigan

 Sharmila Dissanaike
 Lubbock, Texas

 M.B. Majella Doyle
 Saint Louis, Missouri

 Jeffrey A. Drebin
 New York, New York

 B. Mark Evers
 Lexington, Kentucky

 Paula Ferrada
 Richmond, Virginia

 Alberto R. Ferreres
 Buenos Aires, Argentina

 Ryan C. Fields
 Saint Louis, Missouri

 Abe Fingerhut
 Graz, Austria

 James W. Fleshman
 Dallas, Texas

 Julie Ann Freischlag
 Winston-Salem, North Carolina

 John J. Fung
 Chicago, Illinois

 Nancy L. Gantt
 Youngstown, Ohio​​

 O. James Garden
 Edinburgh, United Kingdom

 Rachel Guest
 Edinburgh, United Kingdom

 Bruce L. Hall
 Saint Louis, Missouri

 Andrea Hayes-Jordan
 Chapel Hill, North Carolina

 David N. Herndon
 Galveston, Texas

 Arnold Hill
 Dublin, Ireland

 David B. Hoyt
 Irvine, California

 Kenji Inaba
 Los Angeles, California

 William R. Jarnagin
 New York, New York 

 Lynt Johnson
 Washington, District of Columbia

 Fabian M. Johnston
 Baltimore, Maryland

 Gregory J. Jurkovich
 Seattle, Washington

 E. Margaret Kemeny
 New York, New York

 K. Craig Kent
 Columbus, Ohio

 Melina R. Kibbe
 Chapel Hill, North Carolina

 Mary E. Klingensmith
 Saint Louis, Missouri

 Norihiro Kokudo
 ​Tokyo, Japan

Editors Emeriti

Kirby I. Bland
Birmingham, Alabama

Timothy George Buchman
Atlanta, Georgia

John L. Cameron
Baltimore, Maryland

Edward M. Copeland III
Gainesville, Florida

E. Christopher Ellison
Columbus, Ohio


Social Media Editor

Lillian S. Kao
Houston, Texas

Statisticians

Joan S. Chmiel
Chicago, Illinois

Adin-Cristian Andrei
Chicago, Illinois

Production Manager 

Suzanne Iler
Baltimore, Maryland





Lillian S. Kao
Houston, Texas

Rachel R. Kelz
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Allan D. Kirk
Durham, North Carolina

Mary Margaret Knudson
San Francisco, California

Clifford Y. Ko
Los Angeles, California

Ronald J. Weigel
Iowa City, Iowa​​





​Paul C. Kuo

Tampa, Florida

Christine L. Lau
Baltimore, Maryland

Keith D. Lillemoe
Boston, Massachusetts

Michael T. Longaker
Stanford, California

Melinda Maggard-Gibbons
Los Angeles, California

John C. Marshall
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Colin A. Martin
Birmingham, Alabama

Jeffrey B. Matthews
Chicago, Illinois

David W. McFadden
Farmington, Connecticut

Kelly M. McMasters
Louisville, Kentucky

Laura M. Moore
Houston, Texas

Enrique Moreno-Gonzalez
Madrid, Spain

Masaki Mori
Osaka, Japan

Jeffry T. Nahmias
Orange, California

Leigh Neumayer
Tucson, Arizona

Erika A. Newman
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Valentine Nfonsam
Tucson, Arizona

Ninh T. Nguyen
Orange, California

P. Ronan O'Connell
Dublin, Ireland

Timothy M. Pawlik
Columbus, Ohio

Jeffrey L. Ponsky
Cleveland, Ohio

Mitchell Posner
Chicago, Illinois

Aurora D. Pryor
Stony Brook, New York

Carla Pugh
Stanford, California

Taylor S. Riall
Tucson, Arizona

Hilary A. Sanfey
Springfield, Illinois

Carol Scott-Conner
Iowa City, Iowa

Carmen Solorzano
Nashville, Tennessee

Nathaniel J. Soper
Chicago, Illinois

Julie Ann Sosa
San Francisco, California

Steven C. Stain
Albany, New York

Jennifer Tseng
Boston, Massachusetts

Gilbert R. Upchurch, Jr.
Charlottesville, Virginia

Jean-Nicolas Vauthey
Houston, Texas

Omaida C. Velazquez
Miami, Florida

Brad W. Warner
Saint Louis, Missouri

Sharon M. Weber
Madison, Wisconsin

William C. Welch
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Steven D. Wexner
Weston, Florida

Rebekah R. White
San Diego, California

John Wong
Pokfulam, Hong Kong

Sandra L. Wong
Lebanon, New Hampshire

Martha A. Zeiger
Frederick, Maryland

Yu-pei Zhao
Beijing, China





Michael W. Mulholland
​​Ann Arbor, Michigan

Carlos A. Pellegrini
Seattle, Washington

Marshall Z. Schwartz
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Courtney M. Townsend, Jr.
Galveston, Texas

Michael J. Zinner
Boston, Massachusetts​