From the Department of Military & Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, National Center for Disaster Medicine & Public Health, Bethesda, MD (Goolsby)
National Center for Disaster Medicine and Public Health Medicine, Bethesda, MD (Schuler)
The Henry M Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc. Bethesda, MD (Schuler)
EMS Physician, retired, Holland, MI. Formerly: Office of EMS, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (Krohmer)
Dayton Fire Department. Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH (Gerstner)
Department of Emergency Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Science Center, El Paso, El Paso, TX (Weber)
Departments of Emergency Medicine (Slattery), Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine at UNLV, City of Las Vegas
Surgery (Kuhls), Kirk Kerkorian School of Medicine at UNLV, City of Las Vegas
Las Vegas Fire & Rescue, Las Vegas, NV (Slattery)
National Center for Disaster Medicine & Public Health, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD (Kirsch).
Received March 10, 2022; Revised May 26, 2022; Accepted May 27, 2022.
Disclosure Information: Nothing to disclose.
Support: This work was supported by funding from the US Department of Transportation under grant number HU00012020043. Dr Goolsby is supported by the US Department of Defense and US Department of Homeland Security. Mr Gerstner received speaker fees from Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Dr Weber received speaker fees from NDMPA. Dr Kuhls is supported by the following awards: Western Regional Alliance for Pediatric Emergency Management (WRAP-em), subaward from the Regents of the University of California, San Francisco (awarding agency: US Department of Health and Human Services Assistant Secretary for Preparedness & Response, PTE Federal Award U3REP190616, Subaward 11611sc, subaward amendment 03 to 1611sc, awarding agency: National Collaborative on Gun Violence Research; award to the American College of Surgeons, sub-award 6650UNLVGP001. Dr Kirsch is supported by funding from the Defense Health Agency.
Disclaimer: This article is the opinions of the authors and not the official policy or position of Uniformed Services University, Department of Defense, Department of Transportation, or the US Government or other agencies involved.
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Correspondence address: Craig Goolsby, MD, MEd, FACEP, Department of Military & Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, National Center for Disaster Medicine & Public Health, Bethesda, MD 20814. email: [email protected]