From the Division of Research and Optimal Patient Care, American College of Surgeons, Chicago, IL (Brajcich, Ko)
Surgical Outcomes and Quality Improvement Center, Department of Surgery, Northwestern Medicine, Chicago, IL (Brajcich)
San Antonio Military Medical Center, JBSA-Ft. Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX (Stigall)
Division of Pediatric Surgery, East Carolina University Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, NC (Walsh)
Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (Varghese)
Department of Surgery, University of Nevada Las Vegas School of Medicine, Las Vegas, NV (Barber)
Department of Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (Kralovich)
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (Wescott)
Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ (Pockaj)
Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (Ko)
The Healthcare Improvement Studies Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK (Ko)
Department of Breast Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (Laronga).
Disclosure Information: Nothing to disclose.
Disclosures outside the scope of this work: Dr Laronga receives royalties from Up-To-Date for reviewing and updating topic on benign breast disease and ductal carcinoma in situ. All other authors have nothing to disclose.
Support: Dr Brajcich was supported by the American College of Surgeons as part of the Clinical Scholars in Residence program and by a training grant from the National Cancer Institute (T32CA247801). Dr Walsh receives grant money from Children’s Miracle Network.
Presented virtually at the American College of Surgeons 2021 Clinical Congress, October 2021.
Supplemental digital content for this article is available at https://links.lww.com/XCS/A36.
Received August 20, 2021; Revised October 7, 2021; Accepted October 18, 2021.
Correspondence address: Brian C Brajcich, MD, MS, Division of Research and Optimal Patient Care, American College of Surgeons, 633 N Saint Clair St, 23rd Floor, Chicago, IL 60611. email: [email protected]