Effects of Intraoperative Local Pain Cocktail Injections on Early Function and Patient-Reported Outcomes: A Randomized Controlled Trial : Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma

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Original Article

Effects of Intraoperative Local Pain Cocktail Injections on Early Function and Patient-Reported Outcomes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Ihejirika-Lomedico, Rivka MDa; Solasz, Sara BAa; Lorentz, Nathan MDa; Egol, Kenneth A. MDa; Leucht, Philipp MDa,b;  and NYU Hip Fracture Research Group

Author Information
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 37(9):p 433-439, September 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/BOT.0000000000002628



To determine whether a perioperative pain cocktail injection improves postoperative pain, ambulation distance, and long-term outcomes in patients with hip fracture.


Prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial.


Academic Medical Center.


Patients with OTA/AO 31A1-3 and 31B1-3 fractures undergoing operative fixation, excluding arthroplasty.


Multimodal local injection of bupivacaine (Marcaine), morphine sulfate (Duramorph), ketorolac (Toradol) given at the fracture site at the time of hip fracture surgery (Hip Fracture Injection, HiFI).

Main Outcome Measurements: 

Patient-reported pain, American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ), narcotic usage, length of stay, postoperative ambulation, Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment.


Seventy-five patients were in the treatment group and 109 in the control group. Patients in the HiFI group had a significant reduction in pain and narcotic usage compared with the control group on postoperative day (POD) 0 (P < 0.01). Based on the APS-POQ, patients in the control group had a significantly harder time falling asleep, staying asleep, and experienced increased drowsiness on POD 1 (P < 0.01). Patient ambulation distance was greater on POD 2 (P < 0.01) and POD 3 (P < 0.05) in the HiFI group. The control group experienced more major complications (P < 0.05). At 6-week postop, patients in the treatment group reported significantly less pain, better ambulatory function, less insomnia, less depression, and better satisfaction than the control group as measured by the APS-POQ. The Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment bothersome index was also significantly lower for patients in the HiFI group, P < 0.05.


Intraoperative HiFI not only improved early pain management and increased ambulation in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery while in the hospital, it was also associated with early improved health-related quality of life after discharge.

Level of Evidence: 

Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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