To determine if a peri-operative pain cocktail injection improves post-operative pain, ambulation distance and long-term outcomes in hip fracture patients.
Prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial
Academic Medical Center
Patients with OTA/AO 31A1-3 and 31B1-3 fractures undergoing operative fixation, excluding arthroplasty
Multimodal local injection of bupivacaine (Marcaine), morphine sulfate (Duramorph), ketorolac (Toradol) given at the fracture site at the time of hip fracture surgery (Hip Fracture Injection, HiFI)
Main outcome measurements:
Patient-reported pain, American Pain Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ), narcotic usage, length of stay, post-operative ambulation, Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA)
75 patients were in the treatment group and 109 in the control group. Patients in the HiFI group had a significant reduction in pain and narcotic usage compared to the control group on post-operative day (POD) 0 (p<0.01). Based on the APS-POQ, patients in the control group had a significantly harder time falling asleep, staying asleep, and experienced increased drowsiness on POD 1 (p<0.01). Patient ambulation distance was greater on POD 2 (p<0.01) and POD 3 (p<0.05) in the HiFI group. The control group experienced more major complications (p<0.05). At six-weeks post-op, patients in the treatment group reported significantly less pain, better ambulatory function, less insomnia, less depression, and better satisfaction than the control group as measured by the APS-POQ. The SMFA bothersome index was also significantly lower for patients in the HiFI group, p<0.05.
Intraoperative HiFI not only improved early pain management and increased ambulation in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery while in the hospital, it was also associated with early improved health related quality of life following discharge.
Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.