To examine the feasibility of a novel anesthetic option for hip fracture fixation with short cephalomedullary nails.
Retrospective cohort study.
The study setting involved an urban, academic Level 1 trauma center, a tertiary care academic medical center, and an orthopaedic specialty hospital.
Twenty recent and 40 risk-matched (1:1:1 by anesthesia type) historical hip fracture patients were included in the study.
All patients with an OTA/AO 31.A1-3 intertrochanteric hip fracture presenting from October 1, 2019 to March 31, 2020 treated with a short cephalomedullary nail underwent a new intraoperative anesthesia protocol using monitored anesthesia care (MAC) and soft-tissue infiltration with local anesthesia (STILA).
Main Outcome Measurements:
Intraoperative measures, postoperative pain scores, narcotic and acetaminophen use, hospital quality measures, and inpatient cost.
A total of 60 patients (20 each: MAC, general, and spinal) were identified. There were differences among the groups regarding mean minimum and maximum intraoperative heart rate with MAC-STILA protocol demonstrating the best maintenance of normal heart rate parameters (60–100 beats per minute). For the first 3 hours postoperatively, MAC-STILA patients reported consistently lower pain scores (visual analog scale <1) than spinal or general patients (visual analog scale > 1). Through 48 hours postoperatively, MAC-STILA narcotic usage was similar to that of the spinal cohort and approximately 5 times less than the general cohort. There were no differences in procedural time, length of stay, minor or major complications, inpatient and 30-day mortality, or 30-day readmissions, or postoperative ambulatory distance. There was no difference in inpatient cost among cohorts.
This feasibility study demonstrates safety for the MAC-STILA protocol with comparison to spinal and general anesthesia. The MAC-STILA protocol is a viable option for treatment of OTA/AO 13.A1-3 intertrochanteric fractures with a short cephalomedullary nail and may be the preferred method for patients with severe medical comorbidities or relative contraindications to general and/or spinal anesthesia.
Level of Evidence:
Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of Levels of Evidence.