To evaluate inpatient outcomes among patients with hip fracture treated during the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City.
Multicenter retrospective cohort study.
One Level 1 trauma center and one orthopaedic specialty hospital in New York City.
Fifty-nine consecutive patients (average age 85 years, range: 65–100 years) treated for a hip fracture (OTA/AO 31, 32.1) over a 5-week period, March 20, 2020, to April 24, 2020, during the height of the COVID-19 crisis.
Main Outcome Measurements:
COVID-19 infection status was used to stratify patients. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit, unexpected intubation, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolus, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, urinary tract infection, and transfusion. Baseline demographics, comorbidities, treatment characteristics, and COVID-related symptomatology were also evaluated.
Ten patients (15%) tested positive for COVID-19 (COVID+) (n = 9; 7 preoperatively and 2 postoperatively) or were presumed positive (n = 1), 40 (68%) patients tested negative, and 9 (15%) patients were not tested in the primary hospitalization. American Society of Anesthesiologists' scores were higher in the COVID+ group (d = −0.83; P = 0.04); however, the Charlson Comorbidity Index was similar between the study groups (d = −0.17; P = 0.63). Inpatient mortality was significantly increased in the COVID+ cohort (56% vs. 4%; odds ratio 30.0, 95% confidence interval 4.3–207; P = 0.001). Including the one presumed positive case in the COVID+ cohort increased this difference (60% vs. 2%; odds ratio 72.0, 95% confidence interval 7.9–754; P < 0.001).
Hip fracture patients with concomitant COVID-19 infection had worse American Society of Anesthesiologists' scores but similar baseline comorbidities with significantly higher rates of inpatient mortality compared with those without concomitant COVID-19 infection.
Level of Evidence:
Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.