aDepartment of Orthopaedics, Hennepin Healthcare, Minneapolis, MN;
bDepartment of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD;
cDepartment of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD;
dDepartment of Orthopaedics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD;
eDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC;
fDepartment of Orthopedics, Nashville, TN;
gDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Antonio Military Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, TX;
hDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brown University Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Providence, RI;
iDepartment of Orthopaedic Surgery, Denver Health Medical System, Denver, CO; and
jDepartment of Orthopedic Surgery, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston Salem, NC.
Reprints: Andrew H. Schmidt, MD, Department of Orthopaedics, Hennepin Healthcare, Mailcode G2, 701 Park Avenue S, Minneapolis, MN 55415 (e-mail: [email protected]).
Supported in part by a grant from the Department of Defense-Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program (DoD CDMRP) (W81XWH-10-2-0090).
The authors report no conflict of interest.
Presented in part at the Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, September 27, 2019, Denver, CO.
METRC corporate authors are listed in Appendix 1.
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.jorthotrauma.com).