To (1) identify trends in the rates of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and (2) calculate the additional incremental inpatient cost
and length of stay associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) after hip fracture
Retrospective database analysis.
Hospital discharge data.
A total of 838,054 patients undergoing operative treatment of hip fractures in the National Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2014.
Internal fixation or partial/total hip replacement.
Main Outcome Measures:
The length of stay and cost
of hospitalization were compared between patients with VTE and those without using a Student t
-test. A logistic regression model was performed to evaluate the trends in VTE rates, and a multivariable linear regression model was performed to evaluate inpatient hospital costs.
The overall rates of DVT and PE were 0.3% and 0.53%, respectively. VTE was associated with an increased length of stay (9 days vs. 5 days) and increased inpatient cost
($103,860.83 vs. $51,576.00). The rate of DVT over the study period decreased, whereas the rate of PE increased.
Each episode of VTE after hip fracture
is a significant source of additional inpatient cost
. Patients who sustain a VTE have approximately twice the length of stay and total inpatient cost
compared with those who do not. The rates of DVT after hip fracture
surgery are decreasing, whereas the rates of PE are increasing.
Level of Evidence:
Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.