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The Effect of Foot Massage on Pain Intensity and Anxiety in Patients Having Undergone a Tibial Shaft Fracture Surgery

A Randomized Clinical Trial

Pasyar, Nilofar PhD*,†; Rambod, Masoume PhD*,†; Kahkhaee, Fateme Rezaee MS

doi: 10.1097/BOT.0000000000001320
Original Article
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Objective: To determine the effect of massage therapy on pain intensity and anxiety in patients who have undergone tibial shaft fracture surgery.

Design: This study was a randomized clinical trial with a pre–post design. As the study included 2 treatment groups, it was a parallel study.

Setting: Khatam-Al-Anbia Hospital in Zahedan, Iran, between July and August 2017.

Patients: In all, 66 patients who underwent a tibial shaft fracture surgery were enrolled and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (33 patients each).

Intervention: The intervention included a 10-minute foot massage (5 minutes per leg) using sweet almond oil, the most common lubricant used in massage therapy.

Main Outcome Measurements: Data were collected using pain numeric rating scale and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory before and after intervention.

Results: After intervention, the mean scores for pain intensity, and anxiety in the intervention and control groups were 4.72 (0.97) and 5.72 (0.91), and 42.84 (6.50) and 58.36 (10.37), respectively. A significant difference was noted between the intervention and control groups concerning pain intensity and anxiety.

Conclusions: The results indicated that massage therapy reduced pain intensity and anxiety in patients who underwent tibial shaft fracture surgery. Therefore, using massage as a noninvasive and acceptable intervention is suggested in orthopaedic surgery, especially after tibial shaft fracture surgeries.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level I. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

*Community Based Psychiatric Care Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran;

Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran; and

Department of Nursing, Student Research Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Reprints: Masoume Rambod, PhD, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Zand St, Nemazee Sq, Shiraz 7193613119, Iran (e-mail: rambodm@sums.ac.ir).

N. Pasyar, M. Rambod, and F. R. Kahkhaee contributed to the conception and design of the study, the acquisition, analysis, and interpretation of data. All the authors drafted and revised the article critically for important intellectual content. N. Pasyar, M. Rambod, and F. R. Kahkhaee approved the final version of the article for publication. N. Pasyar, M. Rambod, and F. R. Kahkhaee agree to be accountable for all aspects of the study in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the study are appropriately investigated and resolved.

The source of funding of this study was Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

The authors report no conflict of interest.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.jorthotrauma.com).

Accepted July 31, 2018

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