Review ArticleHeterotopic Ossification in Orthopaedic TraumaNauth, Aaron MD*; Giles, Erica BSc*; Potter, Benjamin K. MD†; Nesti, Leon J. MD†; O'Brien, Frederick P. MD†; Bosse, Michael J. MD‡; Anglen, Jeffrey O. MD§; Mehta, Samir MD‖; Ahn, Jaimo MD‖; Miclau, Theodore MD¶; Schemitsch, Emil H. MD, FRCS*Author Information *Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopaedics, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada †Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Bethesda, MD ‡Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, ND §Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN ‖Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania, PA ¶Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, UCSF/SFGH Orthopaedic Trauma Institute, San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, CA. Reprints: Emil H. Schemitsch, MD, FRCS, Department of Surgery, Division of Orthopaedics, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5C 1R6 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Presented in part at the Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, San Antonio, TX, 2011. The authors report no conflict of interest. Accepted July 27, 2012 Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma: December 2012 - Volume 26 - Issue 12 - p 684-688 doi: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3182724624 Buy Metrics Abstract Summary: Heterotopic ossification (HO) can be defined as the pathologic formation of bone in extraskeletal tissues. There has been a substantial amount of recent research on the pathophysiology, prophylaxis, and treatment of HO and traumatic conditions associated with the development of HO. This research has advanced our understanding of this disease and helped to clarify evidence-based approaches to both the prophylaxis and treatment of HO. This article reviews the literature on these topics with a focus on their application in orthopaedic trauma. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.