Review ArticlePreclinical Animal Models in Trauma ResearchHarvey, Edward J MD, MSc, FRCSC*; Giannoudis, Peter V MD‡; Martineau, Paul A MD*; Lansdowne, Jennifer L DVM†; Dimitriou, Rozalia MD‡; Moriarty, Thomas Fintan PhD†; Richards, Robert Geoffrey PhD†Author Information From the *McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Canada; †AO Research Institute Davos (ARI), Davos, Switzerland; and ‡University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Accepted for publication May 18, 2011. No authors have claimed a conflict with any of the content in this manuscript. This study was presented in part at the Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association, Baltimore, MD, 2010. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of the journal's web site (www.jorthotrauma.com). Reprints: Edward J. Harvey, MD, MSc, FRCSC, Chief of Orthopaedic Trauma, MUHC-Montreal General Site, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Room B5.159.5, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3G1A4 (e-mail: Edward.firstname.lastname@example.org). Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma: August 2011 - Volume 25 - Issue 8 - p 488-493 doi: 10.1097/BOT.0b013e3182251421 Buy SDC Metrics AbstractIn Brief Preclinical modeling of human disease with animals has not been standardized for many common pathologic processes. Assorted animal models are being used to investigate the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of disease processes. Certainly it is difficult to interpret the current literature because there are diverse and often irrelevant models being implemented. Some models are used for reasons of size or ease rather than the true modeling of a physiological process. Application to granting agencies and design of animal studies is difficult without standardization of the ideal preclinical model for disease states. The current article addresses the preclinical animal modeling of osteoporosis, infection, bone defects, and cartilage injury. This article is a discussion of the current literature, commonly used models, and suggests preferred preclinical models for future research design. Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.