The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of bone morphogenetic protein
, bone morphogenetic protein
with autogenous bone graft (ABG), and ABG alone on the healing of a large bone defect in the canine tibia.
Fifteen 45- to 55-lb canines were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups, 3 per group. The groups included (1) recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein
(rhBMP-2, 0.43 mg/mL)/absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) + collagen/ceramic matrix (CCM), (2) rhBMP-2 (0.22 mg/mL) ACS + CCM, (3) rhBMP-2 (0.43 mg/mL) ACS + ABG, (4) rhBMP-2 (0.22 mg/mL) ACS + ABG, and (5) ABG alone. A 5-mL defect was created in the right tibia and fixed with a 4.5 mm locking plate and 1 of the grafts described above implanted. X-rays were taken biweekly for 12 weeks and evaluated for radiographic union. Representative histology was also examined.
All defects treated with rhBMP-2 (any combination) healed at 6.0 ± 0.9 weeks. None of the ABG alone-treated defects were healed at 12 weeks. Dogs receiving rhBMP-2/ACS + CCM healed at 5.7 ± 0.8 weeks, whereas rhBMP-2/ACS + ABG defects healed at 6.3 ± 0.8 weeks. Histology showed healing consistent with 12-week radiologic results.
Large segmental defects in canine tibiae can be effectively healed with stable fixation and rhBMP-2/ACS + ABG or CCM. These conclusions may offer insight into the clinical treatment of segmental defect nonunions in the human.