Bovine-Derived Bone Protein as a Bone Graft Substitute in a Canine Segmental Defect Model : Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma

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Bovine-Derived Bone Protein as a Bone Graft Substitute in a Canine Segmental Defect Model

Sciadini, Marcus F.; Dawson, John M.; Johnson, Kenneth D.

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Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 11(7):p 496-508, October 1997.



To evaluate the efficacy of a bone graft substitute in healing of a segmental defect of a weight-bearing long bone.


An established canine model was used to perform a blinded, prospective, randomized study of the performance of bone graft substitute implants. This performance was compared with that of an accepted treatment modality (autograft) in a paired fashion.


An accredited animal research facility.

Subjects and Intervention: 

Twenty-eight dogs underwent bilateral radial osteotomies with creation of a 2.5-centimeter defect. On one side, the defect in every dog was filled with autogenous cancellous bone graft (ABG). Contralateral defects received, in a blinded, randomized fashion, cylindrical implants of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) allograft or DBM plus a constant dose (3.0 milligrams) of bovine-derived bone protein (DBM+BP). The defects were stabilized by external fixation. Subjects underwent monthly radiographs and were killed at six, twelve, or twenty-four weeks. Regenerate bone was studied by biomechanical testing and histology. Six animals were studied to determine the dose-response characteristics of the protein preparation. Three received implants containing 0.3 milligram of BP (group 1) and three received 1.0 milligram of BP (group 2). These animals were killed at twelve weeks of follow-up.


All twenty-eight ABG radii (100 percent) progressed to radiographic union, as did thirteen of thirteen (100 percent) DBM+BP radii compared with only four of fifteen (27 percent) of DBM radii. The difference between union rates was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Mean values for most biomechanical parameters of DBM+BP radii exceeded those of their contralateral ABG controls at twelve and twenty-four weeks, whereas those for DBM implants did not. Histology revealed microscopic evidence of normal bone healing in all ABG and DBM+BP radii, whereas most DBM radii demonstrated nonunions. In the dose-response arm of the study, six of six ABG radii (100 percent) achieved union; zero of three (0 percent) of group 1 and two of three (67 percent) of group 2 radii achieved grossly stable unions. Biomechanical testing was consistent with radiographic results, indicating that the 3.0-milligram dose was the most effective of those studied.


The DBM+BP composite implants were more effective at healing critical-sized segmental defects than DBM alone in this canine model when a 3.0-milligram per implant dose of BP was used. Biomechanical and histologic properties of the regenerated bone formed by DBM+BP implants was comparable to that of cancellous autograft.

© Lippincott-Raven Publishers

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