is believed to be a link between knowledge and the application of knowledge and skills to specific situations. No previously published survey comprehensively measures the self-efficacy
of student physical therapists for the outcomes expected of entry-level physical therapists.
of Physical Therapist Student Outcomes (SEPTSO) survey was designed according to the recommended guidelines for tools measuring self-efficacy
. Each of the 25 items was linked to published outcomes expected of entry-level physical therapists. Students in 3 cohorts of a 3-year Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) program completed the online SEPTSO 3 times over the course of 1 academic year.
There was a statistically significant difference among the 3 cohorts in self-efficacy
= 51.93, ρ < .0001, with significant differences between self-efficacy
scores in the classes of DPT 3 and DPT 1 (ρ < .001) and DPT 2 and DPT 3 (ρ < .001). A 2 × 4 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) examining the effect of age or sex found no significant main effects for age (ρ = .059) or sex (ρ = .113) and no significant interactions (ρ = .843). Cronbach's alpha was .983 for the 25 items, demonstrating excellent and significant internal validity, and the item-to-total correlation was high for each item, ranging from .981 to .983. A factor analysis resulted in a model in which 2 factors explained 71% of the variance within the factors of patient management and professionalism.
The SEPTSO survey possesses excellent content validity without bias for age or sex. The potential uses of the SEPTSO survey include program evaluation, curriculum evaluation to identify program weaknesses, accreditation, and self-reflection in students.