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December 2018 - Volume 206 - Issue 12

  • John A. Talbott, MD
  • 0022-3018
  • 1539-736X
  • 12 issues / year
  • Psychiatry 89/142; Clinical Neurology 134/197
  • 1.940

REVIEW ARTICLES
Effects of mind-body exercise on cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis
To quantify the effects of mind-body exercise on cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment, we systematically searched five databases. Findings were analyzed according to the mean change of global cognition, memory, and executive function. Analyses revealed that mind-body exercise was effective in promoting global cognition in individuals with cognitive impairment, as well as in individuals with mild cognitive impairment or dementia; dance was effective in promoting global cognition and memory in individuals with cognitive impairment, but tai chi was not. Nevertheless, additional well-designed randomized clinical trials are further needed.

The face as diversity: What was the medical-scientific value of Lombrosian morphoanthropology?
The Italian physician Cesare Lombroso was the author of the concept of morphoanthropology, according to which the human being is judged on the basis of his physical connotations. The ugly person, with particular marks on his face and body, would be brought to the crime. Time has dissolved the value of Lombrosian theories, and scientific research has highlighted the influence of various factors in the genesis of crime. Genetic, biological, socio environmental factors, regulated by neurophysiology, which adds the effect of antagonism between the prefrontal cortex and the limbic cortex, explain the tendency to crime.


ORIGINAL ARTICLES

Therapy adherence and emotional awareness and regulation in persons with HIV
We assessed emotional deficits and measured adherence in 100 adults, using both self-report and viral load testing. Results showed that people classified as adherent in both measurements were more likely to have a greater awareness of their own emotions. Participants classified as non-adherent were more likely to have a reduced ability to recognize the emotions of others. Difficulty in recognizing one's own emotions, otherwise known as alexithymia, and impairment of the ability to recognize other's emotions may contribute to nonadherence to ART. Consequently, after repeated studies to confirm the findings, it can be considered a target for psychological therapies aimed at increasing adherence.

The effect of psychoeducation on anxiety in women undergoing their initial breast cancer screening mammography
We conducted a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study to determine whether a psychoeducational intervention for patients undergoing screening mammography could influence the level of anxiety related to the procedure. In the study group, patients received a psychoeducational session before mammography. In the control group, psychoeducation was not applied. In order to evaluate the level of anxiety, we used the state-trait anxiety inventory: STAI. S-Anxiety Score and T anxiety scores were assessed before and after mammography in both groups. After evaluating the S-Anxiety Score in the study group, before mammography and after the procedure, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.043) was observed. In contrast, no statistically significant changes were  noticed in the control group (p = 0.886).

Change in emotional and theory of mind processing in borderline personality disorder: A pilot study
For this pilot study, we assessed eight patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) before and after a three-month long psychiatric treatment, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and behavioral tasks. We observed arousal increase within session of the two-chair dialogue (d = 0.36), paralleled by arousal decrease between sessions (d = 0.80). We found treatment associated trends for neural activity reduction in brain areas central for emotion processing (EP) and theory of mind (TOM). Our exploratory findings, using an integrative assessment procedure of changes in EP and TOM, point towards evidence for treatment effects at the brain systems level related to behavioral modulation.

Mortality rates and trends among Bologna community mental health service users: A 13-year cohort study
The present study aimed to determine mortality rates and trends among community mental health service users in Bologna (Italy) between 2001 and 2013. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, and Poisson multiple regression analysis was performed. The cohort comprised 42,357 patients, of which 3,556 died. The overall SMR was 1.62, 95% CI [1.57-1.67]. SMRs for natural causes of death ranged from 1.25 to 2.30, while the SMR for violent deaths was 3.45. Both serious and common mental disorders showed a significant excess of mortality, although higher rates were found in severe mental disorders, especially in personality disorders.

Prospective patterns of help-seeking behavior among military veterans with probable PTSD and MDD
This study examined help-seeking behavior from professional, informal, and religious sources in veterans with a probable need for treatment. In total, 93 veterans who screened positive for PTSD/MDD completed assessments of help-seeking at two-time points, spaced apart by six months. Less than half (40%) reached out to a mental health professional or physician; only 1 in 10 engaged with providers who specialize in evidence-based therapies to a minimally adequate degree. While roughly two thirds pursued help from informal sources, less than 10% similarly sought help 9 or more times. Veterans with high willingness to seek help from specific sources at baseline were more likely to report sustained engagement in help-seeking behavior along these same lines at follow-up. Assessing veterans' help-seeking intentions may add prognostic value in predicting engagement in services.

Characteristics of parents with high expressed emotion and related factors: A study of parents of adults with schizophrenia
This study aimed to clarify characteristics of parents with high expressed emotion (EE) and related factors among parents of adults with schizophrenia. In total, 73 of the 289 parents (25.3%) had high EE (Family Attitude Scale (FAS) score ≥ 60), and 216 (74.7%) had low EE (FAS score < 60). A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high 9 EE parents were more distressed (OR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.16–1.39) and experienced more physical violence from their adult children with schizophrenia (OR = 2.86; 95% CI 1.28– 11 6.43); the children with schizophrenia had been hospitalized at time of survey (OR = 6.54; 12 95% CI 1.10–38.89), and were less likely to attend rehabilitation services (OR = 2.56; 13 95% CI 1.06–6.17).

BRIEF REPORTS

Investigating the link between pathological narcissism and somatization
A community sample of 248 adults completed measures of pathological narcissism, somatosensory amplification, somatic symptoms, and depression. Mediation analysis was conducted, controlling for depression, using 99% bootstrapped confidence intervals to examine the indirect effect of pathological narcissism on somatic symptoms via somatosensory amplification. Although pathological narcissism was not directly related to somatic symptoms, a significant indirect effect was observed for pathological narcissism on somatic symptoms via somatosensory amplification. This finding suggests that pathological narcissism contributes to physical hypersensitivity, in turn influencing perceptions of somatic distress.

How music impacts visual attention training in schizophrenia: A pilot study
We sought to determine if participants preferred music or if random music would increase the efficacy of computer-based attention training (AT). Forty-eight patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to two weeks of either: (a) AT with participants' choice of background music, (b) AT with random background music, (c) AT without music, or (d) a no training or music control watching videos without AT or music. All groups except the no training/no music control group demonstrated improvement in reaction time and response accuracy after training, with those participating in AT with their choice of music exhibiting greater gains than either of the other two AT groups. These findings suggest that complimenting AT with music, and allowing participants to choose the music, may increase the efficacy of AT.

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