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Intrusive Rumination, Deliberate Rumination, and Posttraumatic Growth Among Adolescents After a Tornado

The Role of Social Support

Xu, Wei, PhD*; Jiang, Huili, MSc*; Zhou, Yuyang, PhD; Zhou, Linli, BSc*; Fu, Hong, PhD*

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: March 2019 - Volume 207 - Issue 3 - p 152–156
doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000926
Original Articles

Posttraumatic growth (PTG) may exist in trauma survivors, especially adolescents, whereas rumination is a typical cognitive characteristic among traumatized individuals. However, there were mixed relationships between rumination (intrusive rumination, deliberate rumination) and PTG. The study aimed to increase understanding of the relationships between them by investigating the role of social support among adolescents after the Yancheng tornado. Four hundred forty-three middle school students in the core area of the tornado were administered a revised social support scale based on Furman and Buhrmester's Network of Relationships Inventory, Event-Related Rumination Inventory, and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Results showed a nonsignificant relationship between intrusive rumination and PTG, whereas a positive relationship was found between deliberate rumination and PTG. Moreover, social support did not moderate the relationship between intrusive rumination and PTG, but it significantly mediated the relationship between deliberate rumination and PTG. Clinical implications on trauma intervention and limitations as well as future research directions were discussed.

*School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing; and

Shanghai International Studies University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Send reprint requests to Hong Fu, PhD, School of Psychology, Nanjing Normal University, No. 122 Ninghai Rd, Gulou District, Nanjing, 210097, People's Republic of China. E-mail:

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