Original ArticlesMindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder A Neuropsychological PerspectiveGu, Yingqi PhD∗; Zhu, Yi MD†,‡; Brown, Kirk Warren PhD§Author Information ∗Department of Psychology, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou †School of Psychology, Hainan Medical University, Haikou ‡Department of Psychology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China §Department of Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia. Send reprint requests to Yingqi Gu, PhD, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, 928 Second Ave, Xiasha Higher Education Zone, University, Hangzhou, China 310018. E-mail: [email protected]. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: November 2021 - Volume 209 - Issue 11 - p 796-801 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001388 Buy Metrics Abstract Understanding the underlying mechanisms of mindfulness has been a hot topic in recent years, not only in clinical fields but also in neuroscience. Most neuroimaging findings demonstrate that critical brain regions involved in mindfulness are responsible for cognitive functions and mental states. However, the brain is a complex system operating via multiple circuits and networks, rather than isolated brain regions solely responsible for specific functions. Mindfulness-based treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have emerged as promising adjunctive or alternative intervention approaches. We focus on four key brain circuits associated with mindfulness practices and effects on symptoms of ADHD and its cognitive dysfunction, including executive attention circuit, sustained attention circuit, impulsivity circuit, and hyperactivity circuit. We also expand our discussion to identify three key brain networks associated with mindfulness practices, including central executive network, default mode network, and salience network. We conclude by suggesting that more research efforts need to be devoted into identifying putative neuropsychological mechanisms of mindfulness on how it alleviates ADHD symptoms. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.