Original ArticlesMental Health and Quality of Life Among Adults With Single, Multiple, and No Religious AffiliationsPeres, Mario Fernando Prieto MD, PhD∗,†; Swerts, Diego∗; de Oliveira, Arão Belitardo PhD∗; Leão, Frederico Camelo MD, PhD†; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero MD, PhD‡; Vallada, Homero MD, PhD†; de Oliveira Maraldi, Everton PhD§; Toniol, Rodrigo PhD∥; Lucchetti, Giancarlo MD, PhD‡Author Information ∗Department of Neurology, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein †PROSER, Programa de Espiritualidade e Religiosidade, Instituto de Psiquiatra, FMUSP, São Paulo ‡Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora §Post-Graduate Program on Religious Studies, Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo ∥Department of Anthropology, University of Campinas, Campinas, Brazil. Send reprint requests to Mario Fernando Prieto Peres, MD, PhD, R Joaquim Eugenio de Lima, 881 cj 708, São Paulo, SP, 01403-001 Brazil. E-mail: [email protected]. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.jonmd.com). The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: April 2020 - Volume 208 - Issue 4 - p 288-293 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001115 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Few studies have investigated the “multiple religious affiliations” phenomenon. This study aims to understand those with “multiple religious affiliations,” describing its prevalence and investigating if there are differences in mental health and quality of life between this group and those with a single religious affiliation and those with no religious affiliation. A total of 1169 adults were included, and 58% had a single religious affiliation, 27.7% had multiple religious affiliations, and 12.3% had no religious affiliation. Participants with a single religious affiliation presented better mental health and quality of life than those with multiple or no religious affiliations. Although most outcomes were similar between multiple and no religious affiliations, happiness and optimism were higher in the multiple religious group, and anxiety was lower in the no religious group. Health care professionals should be aware of the secondary religious affiliations of their patients to identify possible conflicts and to treat them comprehensively. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.