Original ArticlesReligion, Spirituality, and Ethics in Psychiatric PracticeDike, Charles C. MD, MPH∗; Briz, Laura MD†; Fadus, Matthew MD‡; Martinez, Richard MD§; May, Catherine MD∥; Milone, Richard MD¶; Nesbit-Bartsch, Ariana MD#; Powell, Tia MD∗∗; Witmer, Ashley BBA††; Brendel, Rebecca Weintraub MD, JD‡‡ Author Information ∗Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut †Eating Recovery Center Pathlight, Chicago, Illinois ‡Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts §Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado ∥Department of Psychiatry, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC ¶Private Practice, New York #San Diego County Psychiatric Hospital, San Diego, California ∗∗Center for Bioethics and Masters' in Bioethics at Montefiore Health Systems and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York ††American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC ‡‡Center for Bioethics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Send reprint requests to Charles C. Dike, MD, MPH, Yale University School of Medicine, CMHC 34 Park Street, New Haven, CT 06519. E-mail: [email protected]. This submission represents work done on behalf of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), which holds the copyright for this material. The APA Board of Trustees has permitted the authors to seek publication of this work with the understanding that if accepted for publication, copyright remains with the APA and that nonexclusive publication rights are granted to the journal to which the work was submitted. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 210(8):p 557-563, August 2022. | DOI: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001505 Buy Metrics Abstract The interface of religion, spirituality, and psychiatric practice has long been of interest to the ethical psychiatrist. Some prominent early psychotherapists had a strained relationship with religion and spirituality. They posited that religion and spirituality were forms of mental illness, which discouraged the discussion of these values during treatment despite the fact that many patients subscribed to a religious or spiritual viewpoint. Contrarily, others supported a harmonious relationship with religion and spirituality and served as trailblazers for the incorporation of religion and spirituality into psychiatric treatment. As the field of psychiatry continues to evolve, additional dimensions of the relationship between religion, spirituality, and psychiatric practice must be explored. Today, many modern psychiatrists appreciate the importance of incorporating religion and spirituality into treatment, but questions such as whether it is ethical to practice psychiatry from a particular religious or spiritual viewpoint or for psychiatrists to advertise that they subscribe to a particular religion or spirituality and to engage in religious or spiritual practices with their patients remain nuanced and complex. In this resource document, the authors put forth and examine the ramifications of a bio-psycho-social-religious/spiritual model for psychological development and functioning, with this fourth dimension shifting the focus from symptom reduction alone to include other aspects of human flourishing such as resilience, meaning-making, and hope. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.