Original ArticlesMetacognition Mediates the Relationship Between Maladaptive Personality Traits and Levels of Personality Functioning A General Investigation on a Nonclinical SamplePedone, Roberto PhD∗,†; Barbarulo, Anna Maria PhD†; Colle, Livia PhD‡; Semerari, Antonio MD§; Grimaldi, Pietro PsyD†Author Information ∗Department of Psychology, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli †Psicometrica.it-Ars Psico Clinical Center, Caserta ‡Department of Psychology, Center of Cognitive Science, University of Turin, Turin §Third Center of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Rome, Italy. Send reprint requests to Roberto Pedone, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Viale Ellittico 31, 81100 Caserta, Italy. E-mail: [email protected]. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: May 2021 - Volume 209 - Issue 5 - p 353-361 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001304 Buy Metrics Abstract The impaired ability to reflect on one's own state of mind and that of others (called metacognition or mentalization) is a central feature of personality disorders (PDs). Metacognition involves different specific abilities, which can be selectively impaired with different PDs and personality maladaptive traits. Moreover, research in the field of PDs has indicated that personality features and metacognitive abilities are associated with the severity of personality pathologies. In this study, we tested a mediation model of the interactions between these variables on predicting levels of personality functioning in a sample of adults taken from the general population (N = 775). Results showed that the relationship between personality traits and personality functioning is partially mediated by metacognitive abilities. These findings support the hypothesis that metacognition plays a significant role in predicting the levels of impairment in personality functioning. These findings have several clinical implications. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.