Original ArticlesDifferential Association of Spirituality and Religiosity With Rumination Implications for the Treatment of DepressionSaunders, David MD, PhD∗,†,‡; Svob, Connie PhD∗,§; Pan, Lifang PhD§; Abraham, Eyal PhD§; Posner, Jonathan MD∗,†; Weissman, Myrna PhD∗,§,∥; Wickramaratne, Priya PhD∗,§,∥Author Information ∗Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons †Division of Child Psychiatry, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York ‡Yale Child Study Center, New Haven, Connecticut §Division of Translational Epidemiology, New York State Psychiatric Institute ∥Mailman School of Public Health, New York, New York. Send reprint requests to Priya Wickramaratne, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 24, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: [email protected]. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: May 2021 - Volume 209 - Issue 5 - p 370-377 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001306 Buy Metrics Abstract Recent studies have shown that religiosity (R) is associated with lower rates of depression, whereas spirituality (S) is associated with higher rates. Rumination has also been associated with higher rates of depression. Some have hypothesized that rumination mediates the differential association of religiosity and spirituality with depression. We empirically test this hypothesis in a longitudinal, multigenerational sample through associations between rumination and depression, R/S and depression, and R/S and rumination. Cross-sectionally, total rumination scores were predicted by spirituality (standardized β = 0.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.00–0.26), with subscale (reflection, depression, and brooding) standardized betas ranging from 0.11 to 0.15 (95% CI, −0.03 to –0.29). Cross-sectionally, rumination was not predicted by religiosity. Longitudinally, and consistent with previous findings, religiosity, but not spirituality, predicted reduced depressive symptoms (standardized β = −0.3; 95% CI, −0.58 to −0.01). The association between spirituality and rumination was driven by millennials. Psychotherapies that target rumination for depression might therefore be especially effective in the millennial demographic. Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.