Original ArticlesExploring the Impact of Religion and Spirituality on Mental Health and Coping in a Group of Canadian Psychiatric OutpatientsAdams, G. Camelia MD, MSc, FRCPC∗; Wrath, Andrew J. BA∗; Le, Thuy PhD∗; Adams, Stephen MD, FRCPC∗; De Souza, Dawn MD, FRCPC∗; Baetz, Marilyn MD, FRCPC, CCPE∗; Koenig, Harold G. MD, MHSC†,‡,§,∥,¶Author Information ∗Department of Psychiatry, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Departments of †Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences ‡Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina §Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia ∥Center for Spirituality, Theology and Health, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina ¶School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, People’s Republic of China. Send reprint requests to G. Camelia Adams, MD, MSc, FRCPC, Ellis Hall Room 124, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8. E-mail: [email protected]. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: December 2020 - Volume 208 - Issue 12 - p 918-924 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001243 Buy Metrics Abstract Research has shown that religious/spiritual (R/S) beliefs can impact mental health. In addition, individual attachment impacts R/S views and mental health. Still, clinical studies are lacking. This study explores the presence of R/S beliefs and attachment insecurity in psychiatric outpatients and the implication for mental health. Ninety psychiatric outpatients reported their R/S beliefs and were categorized into two groups: religious/spiritual (+R/S) or nonreligious/spiritual (−R/S). The groups were compared on attachment, psychiatric symptoms, religious coping, and life satisfaction. Multivariate linear regression was also performed. The +R/S group had significantly higher religious coping and lower attachment insecurity, depression severity, and social anxiety. Attachment insecurity was associated with negative religious coping. Higher attachment avoidance was associated with lower life satisfaction and higher social anxiety. Many patients in psychiatric care hold R/S views and use religious coping. Their R/S beliefs and attachment characteristics might influence each other and impact their mental illness. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.