Original ArticlesSleep Duration Change and Cognitive Function A National Cohort Study of Chinese People Older than 45 YearsLian, Ying MD*,†; Zhang, Jie PhD†,‡; Jia, Cun-Xian PhD†Author Information *Department of Medical Record Management and Statistics, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University †Department of Epidemiology, Shandong University School of Public Health & Shandong University Center for Suicide Prevention Research, Jinan, China ‡State University of New York Buffalo State, Department of Sociology, Buffalo, New York. Send reprint requests to Cun-Xian Jia, PhD, Department of Epidemiology, Shandong University School of Public Health & Shandong University Center for Suicide Prevention Research, No. 44, Wenhuaxi Rd, Jinan 250012, China. E-mail: email@example.com. YL designed, analyzed, and drafted the paper. C-XJ interpreted the findings and revised the paper. JZ was involved in the revised the paper. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. This study was supported by Shandong Provincial Key Research and Development Program (grant no. 2019GSF108196) and Center of China–US Sports Economics and Health Engineering of Shandong (grant no. SDCA20191013). The funding sources had no role in study design, data analysis and interpretation of data, the writing of manuscript, or the decision to submit the paper for publication. Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.jonmd.com). The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: June 2020 - Volume 208 - Issue 6 - p 498-504 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001159 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and cognitive function in Chinese people older than 45 years, using data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The baseline survey was conducted in 2011 and the second and third wave surveys were conducted in 2013 and 2015, respectively. Multiple linear regression models were used to evaluate all associations. A total of 5811 individuals were included. No significant associations were found between short or long sleep duration at baseline and cognitive function. Compared with no change in sleep duration, a decrease in sleep duration by 2 hours or more and an increase in sleep duration by 2 hours or more were associated with worse global cognitive function, with β (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) of −0.42 (−0.70 to −0.14) and −0.34 (−0.67 to −0.01), respectively. In men, an increase of 2 hours or more in sleep duration was associated with lower global cognitive score (β = −0.64; 95% CI, −1.19 to −0.08), whereas in women, a decrease of 2 hours or more in sleep duration was associated with lower global cognitive score (β = −0.42; 95% CI, −0.78 to −0.06). Our study demonstrated that longitudinal sleep duration change was associated with cognitive function. Our findings indicate the need to consider changes in sleep duration when estimating risk and suggest that targeted strategies should be put forward for routine sleep screening and to maintain regular sleep patterns. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.