Review ArticleVarieties of Religious (Non)Affiliation A Primer for Mental Health Practitioners on the “Spiritual but Not Religious” and the “Nones”Saunders, David MD, PhD*; Norko, Michael MD, MA†,‡; Fallon, Brian MD, MPH§; Phillips, James MD†; Nields, Jenifer MD†; Majeed, Salman MD∥; Merlino, Joseph MD, MPA¶; El-Gabalawi, Fayez MD#Author Information *Yale Child Study Center †Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven ‡CT Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services, Hartford, Connecticut §Columbia University Department of Psychiatry, New York, New York ∥Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, Hershey, Pennsylvania ¶State University of New York-Downstate Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Brooklyn, New York #Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Send reprint requests to David Saunders, MD, PhD, 160 Theodore Fremd Ave, Apt A8, Rye, NY 10580. E-mail: email@example.com. All authors are members of the Psychiatry and Religion Committee of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, which has approved submission of this manuscript as a GAP product. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: May 2020 - Volume 208 - Issue 5 - p 424-430 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001141 Buy Metrics Abstract Given changing demographics of religiosity and spirituality, this article aims to help clinicians understand contemporary trends in patient religious and spiritual orientation. It first identifies and describes the evolving varieties of religio-spiritual orientation and affiliation, as identified in survey studies. Particular attention is given to the examination of those who identify as spiritual but not religious (SBNR) and None (i.e., no religious affiliation), which is important to mental health practice because many patients now identify as SBNR or None. Next, empirical data are considered, including what the literature reveals regarding mental health outcomes and SBNRs and Nones. We conclude with a summary of the main points and five recommendations that mental health practitioners and researchers need to consider regarding this increasingly large portion of the population. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.