Original ArticlesTemperament, Character, and Defense Mechanism Changes With Treatment in Depression A 9-Month Naturalistic Follow-upTabakci, Abdulkadir Sencer MD*; Yildirim, Ejder Akgun MD, PhD*; Erkiran, Murat MD*; Aksoy, Umut Mert MD†; Sahan, Halide Erten MD‡; Tuna, Ozgecan MD†; Tomruk, Nesrin Buket MD*; Alpay, Nihat MD*Author Information *Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Psychotherapy Outpatient Clinic, Bakirkoy †Kanuni Sultan Suleyman Training and Research Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul ‡Van Training and Research Hospital Department of Psychiatry, Edremit, Van, Turkey. Send reprint requests to Abdulkadir Sencer Tabakci, MD, Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurosurgery, Psychotherapy Outpatient Clinic, Dr Tevfik Saglam Street No:25/2 Zuhuratbaba, Bakirkoy, 34147 Istanbul, Turkey. E-mail: email@example.com. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: May 2020 - Volume 208 - Issue 5 - p 403-412 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001142 Buy Metrics Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in temperament, character, and defense mechanisms with the treatment and remission in patients with major depressive disorder. The study was designed as a longitudinal observational follow-up study of patients with repeated measures at 0, 12, and 36 weeks. In baseline comparisons, the major depression group showed higher harm avoidance and novelty seeking scores and lower self-directness and mature defense styles scores compared with healthy controls. In the follow-up, temperament dimensions and neurotic defenses remained unchanged, mature defense styles and self-directness revealed significant increase, and immature defense styles revealed significant decrease. Although there was no significant difference in the defense styles, harm avoidance and novelty seeking scores remained higher in MDD patients compare with healthy controls in 36 weeks. Our findings regarding continuation of hierarchically upward improvement in defense mechanism after the remission may support importance of treatment after remission. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.