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Burnout and Its Relationships With Alexithymia, Stress, Self-Esteem, Depression, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Emotional Intelligence

Results From a Lebanese Cross-Sectional Study

Lahoud, Nathalie PharmD, MPH, PhD*,†,‡,§; Zakhour, Maha PhD; Haddad, Chadia MPH; Salameh, Pascale PharmD, MPH, PhD‡,§,#; Akel, Marwan PharmD, MPH†,§; Fares, Kassandra MSc**; Hallit, Souheil PharmD, MSc, MPH, PhD§,††; Obeid, Sahar PhD¶,‡‡,§§

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: August 2019 - Volume 207 - Issue 8 - p 642–650
doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001017
Original Articles

Our aim was to assess the relationship between personality and psychological traits, and burnout among the Lebanese population. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted with multiple validated scales used to measure burnout and other characteristics. A cluster analysis was then performed to split the population into mutually exclusive groups with different profiles according to the burnout scales using the K-mean method. A multivariate analysis of covariance was carried out to compare multiple measures between the cluster groups under comparison. The study, conducted between November 2017 and March 2018, enrolled 789 participants. The results showed that 100 (14.0%) had high emotional work fatigue, whereas 443 (62.5%) and 680 (95.4%) had high mental and physical work fatigue, respectively. People with high physical work fatigue (cluster 1) had lower alcohol dependence (β = −2.78), alexithymia (β = −3.16), depression (β = −7.20), anxiety (β = −6.99), perceived stress (β = −2.53), social phobia (β = −11.49), suicidal ideation (β = −0.35), emotional awareness (β = −4.54), emotional managament (β = −1.71), social emotional awareness (β = −9.27), and relationship management (β = −9.12). People with high emotional work fatigue (cluster 2) had higher alcohol dependence (β = 2.11), alexithymia (β = 6.51), depression (β = 2.48), anxiety (β = 4.11), perceived stress (β = 4.30), and lower emotional awareness (β = −6.68), emotional management (β = −7.80), social emotional awareness (β = −3.71), and relationship management (β = −3.05). Higher levels of burnout were found to be associated with multiple psychological factors. The results would help understand the burnout dimensions and their correlated factors in the Lebanese population.

*CERIPH, Center for Research in Public Health, Pharmacoepidemiology Surveillance Unit, Faculty of Public Health, Lebanese University, Fanar

School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University

Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University

§INSPECT-LB: Institut National de Santé Publique, Epidemiologie Clinique et Toxicologie, Beirut

Faculty of Science, Lebanese University, Fanar

Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Jal Eddib

#Faculty of Medicine, Lebanese University, Beirut

**Faculty of Science

††Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences

‡‡Faculty of Philosophy and Human Sciences, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik (USEK), Jounieh

§§Faculty of Pedagogy, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.

Nathalie Lahoud and Maha Zakhour are first co-authors.

Souheil Hallit and Sahar Obeid are last co-authors.

Send reprint requests to Souheil Hallit, PharmD, MSc, MPH, PhD, Building 560, Street 8, Biakout, Lebanon. E-mail:; and Sahar Obeid, PhD, Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, P.O. Box 60096, Jall-Eddib, Lebanon. E-mail:

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