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Characteristics of Parents With High Expressed Emotion and Related Factors

A Study of Parents of Adults With Schizophrenia

Kageyama, Masako, RN, PHN, PhD*; Solomon, Phyllis, PhD

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: December 2018 - Volume 206 - Issue 12 - p 955–961
doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000902
Original Articles

This study aimed to clarify characteristics of parents with high expressed emotion (EE) and related factors among parents of adults with schizophrenia. In total, 73 (25.3%) of the 289 parents had high EE (Family Attitude Scale [FAS] score ≥60), and 216 (74.7%) had low EE (FAS score <60). A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that high EE parents were more distressed (odds ratio [OR] = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16–1.39) and experienced more physical violence from their adult children with schizophrenia (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.28–6.43); the children with schizophrenia had been hospitalized at time of survey (OR = 6.54; 95% CI = 1.10–38.89) and were less likely to attend rehabilitation services (OR = 2.56; 95% CI = 1.06–6.17). Practitioners need to provide crisis intervention, home-visiting services, and support services for parents during hospitalization of their children with schizophrenia.

*Department of Health Promotion Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; and

School of Social Policy & Practice, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Send reprint requests to Masako Kageyama, RN, PHN, PhD, Department of Health Promotion Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-7 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. E-mail:

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