Secondary Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Self Efficacy in Depression: Bridging the Gap Between Competence and Real World Functioning

Milanovic, Melissa, MSc*; Ayukawa, Emma, BSc*; Usyatynsky, Aleksandra, BSc; Holshausen, Katherine, PhD; Bowie, Christopher, R., PhD, CPsych

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: May 2018 - Volume 206 - Issue 5 - p 350–355
doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000804
Original Articles

We investigated the discrepancy between competence and real-world performance in major depressive disorder (MDD) for adaptive and interpersonal behaviors, determining whether self-efficacy significantly predicts this discrepancy, after considering depressive symptoms. Forty-two participants (M age = 37.64, 66.67% female) with MDD were recruited from mental health clinics. Competence, self-efficacy, and real-world functioning were evaluated in adaptive and interpersonal domains; depressive symptoms were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory II. Hierarchical regression analysis identified predictors of functional disability and the discrepancy between competence and real-world functioning. Self-efficacy significantly predicted functioning in the adaptive and interpersonal domains over and above depressive symptoms. Interpersonal self-efficacy accounted for significant variance in the discrepancy between interpersonal competence and functioning beyond symptoms. Using a multilevel, multidimensional approach, we provide the first data regarding relationships among competence, functioning, and self-efficacy in MDD. Self-efficacy plays an important role in deployment of functional skills in everyday life for individuals with MDD.

*Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston; †Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto; ‡Department of Psychology, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton; and §Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Send reprint requests to Christopher R. Bowie, PhD, CPsych, Queen's University, 62 Arch Street, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6. E-mail:

Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.