Original ArticlesImproving Treatment Engagement for Returning Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Suicidal IdeationGallegos, Autumn M. PhD; Streltzov, Nicholas A. BA; Stecker, Tracy PhDAuthor Information *Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY; †Dartmouth Psychiatric Research Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH; ‡College of Nursing, Medical University of South Carolina; and §Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC. Send reprint requests to Autumn M. Gallegos, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, University of Rochester Medical Center, 300 Crittenden Blvd, Rochester, NY 14642. E-mail: [email protected]. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: May 2016 - Volume 204 - Issue 5 - p 339-343 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000489 Buy Metrics Abstract Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk of suicidal ideation among veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. This report examined the effectiveness of a brief phone-based cognitive-behavioral intervention on treatment seeking among suicidal and nonsuicidal Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans who screened positive for PTSD. Participants were randomized to the intervention or control conditions. We found that suicidal participants, regardless of condition, were twice as likely to attend treatment as nonsuicidal participants. Participants assigned to the control condition who did not indicate suicidality at baseline were less likely to attend treatment at both the 1- and 6-month follow-up interviews. Qualitative findings of the suicidal participants indicated PTSD and depressive symptoms, low social support, and infrequent positive coping mechanisms. Our finding indicates the effectiveness of an intervention to motivate veterans with PTSD to initiate and remain in treatment. The intervention might be particularly useful prior to experiencing a psychological crisis. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.