Brief ReportsSimple Schizophrenia Remains a Complicated Diagnosis Case Report and Literature ReviewAgarwal, Vishesh MD*†; Maheshwari, Subani MD*; Agarwal, Vivek MRCPsych, MMedSc‡; Kalra, Inder Darshan MD§Author Information *Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA; †The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Glen Oaks, NY; ‡North Essex Partnership University NHS Foundation, Colchester, UK; and §Einstein Medical Center, Elkins Park, PA. Send reprint requests to Vishesh Agarwal, MD, Einstein Medical Center, 5501, Old York Road, Philadelphia, PA 19141. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: January 2016 - Volume 204 - Issue 1 - p 57-60 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000413 Buy Metrics Abstract The diagnosis of simple schizophrenia has been challenged and criticized since it was first described by Otto Diem in 1903. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), released by the American Psychiatric Association in May 2013, classified it as a condition for further study with the name “attenuated psychosis syndrome.” This clinical condition has undergone several revisions with each edition of the DSM. It is characterized by oddities in conduct, inability to meet the demands of society, and decline in total performance in the absence of obvious psychotic symptoms. We discuss the case of a 35-year-old man who presented with symptoms fitting the criteria for simple schizophrenia and review the various definitions and case reports published over the years that defend the diagnosis of simple schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.