Original ArticlesAnxiety and Depression in Marines Sent to War in Iraq and AfghanistanBooth-Kewley, Stephanie PhD*; Highfill-McRoy, Robyn M. MPH*; Larson, Gerald E. PhD*; Garland, Cedric F. DrPH, FACE*†; Gaskin, Thomas A. PhD‡Author Information *Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA; †Department of Family and Preventive Medicine and Moores UCSD Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego; and ‡Headquarters, US Marine Corps, Combat Operational Stress Control, Quantico, VA. This research was conducted in compliance with all applicable federal regulations governing the protection of human subjects in research (protocol NHRC.2007.0003). The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, the Department of Defense, nor the US Government. Send reprint requests to Stephanie Booth-Kewley, PhD, Behavioral Science and Epidemiology Department, Naval Health Research Center, 140 Sylvester Road, San Diego, CA 92106-3521. E-mail: [email protected]. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: September 2012 - Volume 200 - Issue 9 - p 749-757 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318266b7e7 Buy Metrics Abstract Although the effects of combat deployment on posttraumatic stress disorder have been extensively studied, little is known about the effects of combat deployment on depression and anxiety. This study examined the factors associated with anxiety and depression in a sample of 1560 US Marines who were deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan. Eleven demographic and psychosocial factors were studied in relation to depression and anxiety. Five factors emerged as significant in relation to depression: deployment-related stressors, combat exposure, attitudes toward leadership, mild traumatic brain injury symptoms, and marital status. The same factors, with the exception of marital status, emerged as significant in relation to anxiety. Deployment-related stressors had a stronger association with both depression and anxiety than any other variable, including combat exposure. This finding is important because deployment-related stressors are potentially modifiable by the military. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.