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Cognitive Insight and Its Relationship With Symptoms in Deficit and Nondeficit Schizophrenia

Ekinci, Okan MD*; Albayrak, Yakup MD; Ekinci, Asl MD

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: January 2012 - Volume 200 - Issue 1 - p 44–50
doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e31823e66af
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Patients with deficit schizophrenia have worse cognition and poorer social functioning compared with those with nondeficit schizophrenia. Insight is another domain in which these two groups might differ. However, there is no literature data specifically on cognitive insight impairment in deficit versus nondeficit schizophrenia. We compared 40 patients with deficit schizophrenia with 81 nondeficit patients and found that schizophrenic patients with deficit syndrome were more self-reflective and have higher self-reflectiveness−self-certainty index scores than did those without deficit syndrome. These differences remained significant when analysis was controlled for sex, age, education, and depression severity. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in self-certainty scores between two groups. In addition, we found significant relationships between cognitive insight and specific psychotic symptoms. A better understanding of the cognitive component of insight in schizophrenia with deficit syndrome may help us to understand the true relationship between insight and negative symptoms and contribute to the development of more efficient cognitive strategies, thus improving patients’ outcome in a severely disabled psychiatric patient group.

*Department of Psychiatry, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat, Turkey; and †Department of Psychiatry, Golbasi Hasvak State Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Send reprint requests to Okan Ekinci, MD, Yozgat Devlet Hastanesi, Psikiyatri Kliniği, Yozgat, Turkey. E-mail:

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.