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Identifying Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses With Psychological Scales in the General Population

Miettunen, Jouko PhD*; Veijola, Juha MD, PhD*†; Isohanni, Matti MD, PhD*; Paunio, Tiina MD, PhD‡§; Freimer, Nelson MD, PhD; Jääskeläinen, Erika MD, PhD*; Taanila, Anja PhD∥**; Ekelund, Jesper MD, PhD‡§††; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta MD, PhD∥‡‡§§¶¶; Peltonen, Leena MD, PhD‡§∥∥; Joukamaa, Matti MD, PhD***†††; Lichtermann, Dirk MD‡‡‡

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: April 2011 - Volume 199 - Issue 4 - p 230-238
doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182125d2c
Original Articles

We study the predictive power and associations of several psychopathology and temperament scales with respect to schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Measures of psychopathology (Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales, Perceptual Aberration Scale, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Bipolar II Scale, and Schizoidia Scale) and the Temperament and Character Inventory were included in the 31-year follow-up of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort (N = 4926). The Perceptual Aberration Scale was the best scale for concurrent validity in psychoses, and also the best psychopathology scale in terms of discriminant validity. Participants scoring high in hypomanic personality were at the highest risk for developing psychosis during the 11-year follow-up. Harm avoidance was a dominant temperament dimension in individuals with psychosis compared with participants without psychiatric diagnoses. These scales are useful as vulnerability markers in studying psychoses.

*Department of Psychiatry, Oulu University and Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; †Academy of Finland, Helsinki, Finland; ‡Public Health Genomics Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; §Department of Psychiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; ¶Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semen Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA; ∥Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; **Unit of General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland; ††Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland; ‡‡Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College London, United Kingdom; §§Lifecourse and Services Department, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Oulu, Finland; ¶¶Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; ∥∥Human Genetics Section, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom; ***Social Psychiatry Unit, Tampere School of Public Health, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland; †††Department of Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; and ‡‡‡Methadone Maintenance Clinic “Café Ersatz”, Bonn, Germany.

Deceased (Leena Peltonen, MD, PhD) in March 2010.

Supported by the Academy of Finland (125 853, 214 273), the European Commission (EURO-BLCS, Framework 5 award QLG1-CT-2000-01643), the NARSAD: the Brain and Behavior Research Fund, the Finnish Medical Association, the Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim Oulu, DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service), and US National Institutes of Health (NIMH) (5R01MH63706:02).

Send reprint requests to Jouko Miettunen, PhD, Department of Psychiatry, PO Box 5000, 90014 University of Oulu, Finland. E-mail:

© 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.