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The Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 in Japanese University Students

Hasui, Chieko PhD*; Kitamura, Toshinori FRCPsych*; Tamaki, Atsuko PhD; Takahashi, Mari PhD; Masuda, Sanae RN§; Ozeki, Nobuko RN

The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: June 2009 - Volume 197 - Issue 6 - p 458-460
doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3181a61f52
Brief Report

The psychometric properties of the Japanese Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3), a self-report measure of self-conscious emotions, were examined in Japanese university students. Confirmatory factor analyses showed good fits of the theory-driven model for 6 emotions to the data. The subscales of the TOSCA-3 showed moderate correlations and internal consistency. Only the Shame subscale was greater among younger students, but women had higher shame and guilt than men. Social desirability moderately influenced some subscales. Test-retest reliability was good for shame and guilt. Time 1 shame predicted time 2 depression a week later. The Japanese version of the TOSCA-3 is a reliable and valid measure of self-conscious emotions among a Japanese population.

*Department of Clinical Behavioral Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto, Japan; †Department of Nursing, School of Nursing, University of KinDAI Himeji, Himeji, Japan; ‡Department of Maternity Nursing and Midwifery, Kitasato University, School of Nursing, Sagamihara, Japan; §Faculty of Nursing, Musashino University, Nishi-Tokyo, Japan; and ∥Department of Health Science, School of Nursing, Aomori University of Health and Welfare.

Send reprint requests to Toshinori Kitamura, FRCPsych, Department of Clinical Behavioural Sciences (Psychological Medicine), Kumamoto University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto, Japan 860-8556. E-mail:

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.