Original ArticleChange in Smoking and Drinking After September 11, 2001, in a National Sample of Ever Smokers and Ever DrinkersPfefferbaum, Betty MD, JD*; North, Carol S. MD, MPE†; Pfefferbaum, Rose L. PhD, MPH‡; Christiansen, Elaine H. PhD§; Schorr, John K. PhD∥; Vincent, Robert D. PhD¶; Boudreaux, Angela S. MA#Author Information *Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; †Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; ‡Liberal Arts Department, Phoenix College, Phoenix, Arizona; §The Gallup Organization, Lincoln, Nebraska; ∥Department of Sociology, Stetson University, DeLand, Florida; ¶College of Public Health, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma; and #Stetson Institute for Social Research, DeLand, Florida. Supported under Award Number MIPT106-113-2000-020 from the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) and the Office of State and Local Government Coordination and Preparedness, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Points of view in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Send reprint requests to Betty Pfefferbaum, MD, JD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, P.O. Box 26901, WP-3470, Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0901. E-mail: [email protected]. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease: February 2008 - Volume 196 - Issue 2 - p 113-121 doi: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e318162aaae Buy Metrics Abstract Telephone survey methodology was used to examine smoking and drinking after the September 11 terrorist attacks in a representative national sample. Most ever smokers and ever drinkers reported no change in substance use after the attacks. Smokers and drinkers who increased substance use were significantly more likely than those who did not to endorse a number of emotional reactions and functional difficulties. The pattern of associations of decreased use with emotional reactions and functional difficulties differed between smokers and drinkers. In general, decreased smoking was associated with denial of emotional reactions and functional difficulties whereas decreased drinking was associated with endorsement of these reactions and difficulties. The results have implications for research, clinical practice, and public health. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.