ArticlesChildhood Emotional Trauma and Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Outpatients with Treatment-Resistant DepressionKAPLAN, MARCIA J. M.D1; KLINETOB, NADYA A. Ph.D1 Author Information 1 Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio. Send reprint requests to Dr. Kaplan, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 222 Piedmont Ave, Suite 8500, Cincinnati, Ohio 45219. This work was supported in part by an Unrestricted Educational Grant by Eli Lilly and Co., Inc, the Cincinnati Psychoanalytic Institute Research Fund, and a Small Grant by the Ohio Department of Mental Health. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 188(9):p 596-601, September 2000. Buy Abstract The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with treatment-resistant depression are more likely than treatment responsive patients to suffer from sequelae of childhood trauma that may perpetuate depression despite adequate medication treatment. Twenty participants with treatment-resistant depression and 20 participants with treatment-responsive depression were administered a structured interview and a battery of psychological tests to assess levels of current depression, confirm diagnosis, and quantify childhood trauma and presence of dissociative phenomena. Tests used include the Beck Depression Inventory, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Trauma Symptom Inventory. Compared with treatment responders, the treatment-resistant participants were significantly more depressed, had significantly more comorbid anxiety disorders, reported significantly greater levels of childhood emotional abuse, and experienced current-day sequelae of childhood emotional abuse. The hypothesis was partially supported by these results. This study suggests that reported history of childhood emotional abuse and sequelae of that abuse may be associated with treatment resistance in depressed outpatients. © 2000 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.