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Survey Development

Caregivers Help Define a Tool to Measure Cultures of Care

Mensik, Jennifer, PhD, RN, NEA-BC, FAAN; Leebov, Wendy, EdD, EdM, BA; Steinbinder, Amy, PhD, RN, NE-BC

JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration: March 2019 - Volume 49 - Issue 3 - p 138–142
doi: 10.1097/NNA.0000000000000727

OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to develop an instrument that measures all healthcare staff's perceptions of a culture of caring.

BACKGROUND Healthcare organizations have increased their focus on cultures of caring within their staff to improve staff satisfaction and patient satisfaction. Nurses and physicians traditionally have been the focus in understanding caring cultures excluding non–direct care staff who do impact organizational culture.

METHODS An exploratory and partial confirmatory factor analysis was completed on 2 instruments that measure the perception of a caring culture in both direct care and non–direct care staff.

RESULTS Results demonstrate that both the direct and non–direct care instruments are valid and reliable measures for assessing a caring culture.

CONCLUSIONS The new 14-item clinical and new 10-item nonclinical staff caring assessment instruments will provide healthcare and nursing leaders with the ability to assess their culture through a direct and non–direct care perspective.

Author affiliations: Division Director, Care Management (Dr Mensik), OHSU, Portland, Ore; Partner (Dr Leebov) and Vice President, Nursing, Evaluation, and Quality (Dr Steinbinder), Language of Caring, Phoenix, Arizona.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Correspondence: Dr Mensik, OHSU, 3181 SW Sam Jackson Park Rd, Portland, OR 97239 (

Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.