This study reported the evolution of transformational leadership (TL) practices and behaviors across years of age, management experience, and professional nursing practice within a professional nursing leadership organization.
Recent studies of CNO TL found valuations peak near age 60 years. This study reported on a wider range of management positions, correlating years of RN practice and management experience and age to TL metrics.
This study used Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practices Inventory—Self-Assessment (LPI-S) to survey a nursing leadership organization, the Association of California Nurse Leaders (ACNL). Anonymous responses were analyzed to identify leadership trends in age and years of professional service.
On average, LPI-S metrics of leadership skills advance through years of management, RN experience, and age. The TL scores are statistically higher in most LPI-S categories for those with more than 30 years of RN or management experience. Decade-averaged LPI-S TL metrics in the ACNL survey evolve linearly throughout age before peaking in the decade from age 60 to 69 years. A similar evolution of TL metrics is seen in decades of either years of management experience or years of RN experience. Transformational leadership increased with nursing maturity particularly for LPI-S categories of “inspire a shared vision,” “challenge the process,” and “enable others to act.”
In the ACNL population studied, decade-averaged leadership metrics advanced. Leadership evolution with age in the broader RN population peaked in age bracket 60 to 69 years. The LPI-S averages declined when older than 70 years, coinciding with a shift from full-time work toward retirement and part-time employment.
Author Affiliations: Vice President for Patient Services and CNO (Dr S Herman), Adventist Health Bakersfield; Professor (Dr Gish), Department of Nursing, California State University Fresno; Professor (Dr Rosenblum), Valley Foundation School of Nursing, San Jose State University; and Consultant (Dr M Herman), Gate Software, Sunnyvale, California.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Correspondence: Dr S Herman, Adventist Health Bakersfield, 2615 Chester Ave, Bakersfield, CA 93301 (email@example.com).
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.jonajournal.com).