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The Nurse Manager Practice Environment Scale: Development and Psychometric Testing

Warshawsky, Nora E. PhD, RN; Rayens, Mary Kay PhD; Lake, Sharon W. PhD, RN; Havens, Donna Sullivan PhD, RN, FAAN

Journal of Nursing Administration: May 2013 - Volume 43 - Issue 5 - p 250–257
doi: 10.1097/NNA.0b013e3182898e4e

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to develop and test a scale designed to describe and assess nurse managers’ practice environments.

BACKGROUND: Creating practice environments supporting workers at all levels is critical to achieving excellent patient, staff, and organizational outcomes. Scales are available to assess staff nurses’ practice environment; however, no comparable scale for nurse managers exists.

METHODS: A cross-sectional design using an electronic survey was administered to nurse managers in 25 hospitals in 9 health systems from 6 states.

RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis with a varimax rotation produced a final solution of 44 items loading in 8 domains. Cronbach’s α’s ranged from .72 to .97. Mean scores ranged from 3.92 to 4.99 on a 6-point Likert scale.

CONCLUSIONS: The scale demonstrated adequate psychometric properties and warrants further use and testing. Understanding the nurse manager practice environment may reveal insights to guide opportunities to improve organizational performance.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Author Affiliations: Assistant Professor (Dr Warshawsky), Professor (Dr Rayens), College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington; Director of Nursing Practice (Dr Lake), UK Health-Care, Lexington, Kentucky; and Professor (Dr Havens), School of Nursing, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Correspondence: Dr Warshawsky, 557 College of Nursing, Lexington, KY 40536 (

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