Working Overtime is Associated With Anxiety and Depression: The Hordaland Health Study : Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

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Original Articles

Working Overtime is Associated With Anxiety and Depression: The Hordaland Health Study

Kleppa, Elisabeth MD; Sanne, Bjarte MD, PhD; Tell, Grethe S. PhD, MPD

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Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50(6):p 658-666, June 2008. | DOI: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e3181734330

Abstract

Objective: 

To examine whether long work hours are associated with increased levels and prevalences of anxiety and depression.

Methods: 

Overtime workers (n = 1350) were compared with a reference group of 9092 workers not working overtime regarding anxiety and depression by means of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Self-reported information on various work-related factors, demographics, lifestyle, and somatic health was included.

Results: 

Overtime workers of both genders had significantly higher anxiety and depression levels and higher prevalences of anxiety and depressive disorders compared with those working normal hours. Findings suggest a dose-response relationship between work hours and anxiety or depression.

Conclusions: 

Working overtime is associated with increased levels of anxiety and depression. The working groups differed significantly regarding several factors including income and heavy manual labor.

Copyright © 2008 by the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

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