This study estimated the proportion of lung cancer in Greece that was attributable to occupational exposure. Two hundred eighty-two patients with lung cancer and 494 controls were interviewed about their socioeconomic characteristics, sex, age, and occupational, smoking, and residential histories. Each subject was classified as exposed or unexposed to known occupational lung carcinogens. Because of the small number of females exposed, only males were included in the multivariate analyses. When the occupationally exposed subjects were compared with the unexposed subjects and an adjustment for smoking was made, the relative risk for lung cancer was 2.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.95-4.31). If 5% to 10% of the Greek population were occupationally exposed, the attributable risk would be 9.9% to 16.6%, respectively. Occupational exposures conferred an additional risk that was approximately threefold that of smoking alone. Risks increased in a dose-response fashion with increasing cigarette consumption.