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Stanford Presenteeism Scale: Health Status and Employee Productivity

Koopman, Cheryl Phd; Pelletier, Kenneth R. PhD, MD(hc); Murray, James F. PhD; Sharda, Claire E. RN, MBA, MHSA; Berger, Marc L. MD; Turpin, Robin S. PhD; Hackleman, Paul MA; Gibson, Pamela MPH; Holmes, Danielle M.; Bendel, Talor BA

Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine: January 2002 - Volume 44 - Issue 1 - p 14-20
Original Articles

Workforce productivity has become a critical factor in the strength and sustainability of a company’s overall business performance. Absenteeism affects productivity; however, even when employees are physically present at their jobs, they may experience decreased productivity and below-normal work quality—a concept known as decreased presenteeism. This article describes the creation and testing of a presenteeism scale evaluating the impact of health problems on individual performance and productivity. A total of 175 county health employees completed the 34-item Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-34). Using these results, we identified six key items to describe presenteeism, resulting in the SPS-6. The SPS-6 has excellent psychometric characteristics, supporting the feasibility of its use in measuring health and productivity. Further validation of the SPS-6 on actual presenteeism (work loss data) or health status (health risk assessment or utilization data) is needed.

From the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine (Dr Koopman, Dr Pelletier, Ms Holmes); Outcomes Research and Management (Ms Sharda, Dr Berger, Dr Turpin), and Clinical Quality and Health Information Management (Dr Murray), Merck & Co, Inc; Columbia University (Ms Bendel); and the University of Maryland School of Medicine (Dr Pelletier). Mr Hackleman is a Benefits Manager, and Ms Gibson is a Health and Fitness Coordinator, for San Mateo County, Calif.

Address correspondence to: Cheryl Koopman, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5718;

© 2002 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.